Articles taggués ‘HTTP’

How To Use Apache JMeter To Perform Load Testing on a Web Server

12/11/2017 Aucun commentaire


In this tutorial, we will go over how to use Apache JMeter to perform basic load and stress testing on your web application environment. We will show you how to use the graphical user interface to build a test plan and to run tests against a web server.

JMeter is an open source desktop Java application that is designed to load test and measure performance. It can be used to simulate loads of various scenarios and output performance data in several ways, including CSV and XML files, and graphs. Because it is 100% Java, it is available on every OS that supports Java 6 or later.



In order to follow this tutorial, you will need to have a computer that you can run JMeter on, and a web server to load test against. Do not run these tests against your production servers unless you know they can handle the load, or you may negatively impact your server’s performance.

You may adapt the tests in this tutorial to any of your own web applications. The web server that we are testing against as an example is a 1 CPU / 512 MB VPS running WordPress on a LEMP Stack, in the NYC2 DigitalOcean Datacenter. The JMeter computer is running in the DigitalOcean office in NYC (which is related to the latency of our tests).

Please note that the JMeter test results can be skewed by a variety of factors, including the system resources (CPU and RAM) available to JMeter and the network between JMeter and the web server being tested. The size of the load that JMeter can generate without skewing the results can be increased by running the tests in the non-graphical mode or by distributing the load generation to multiple JMeter servers.  Lire la suite…

How to sniff HTTP traffic from the command line on Linux

23/05/2016 Comments off

sniff HTTP trafficSuppose you want to sniff live HTTP web traffic (i.e., HTTP requests and responses) on the wire for some reason. For example, you may be testing experimental features of a web server. Or you may be debugging a web application or a RESTful service. Or you may be trying to troubleshoot PAC (proxy auto config) or check for any malware files surreptitiously downloaded from a website. Whatever the reason is, there are cases where HTTP traffic sniffing is helpful, for system admins, developers, or even end users.

While packet sniffing tools such as tcpdump are popularly used for live packet dump, you need to set up proper filtering to capture only HTTP traffic, and even then, their raw output typically cannot be interpreted at the HTTP protocol level so easily. Real-time web server log parsers such as ngxtopprovide human-readable real-time web traffic traces, but only applicable with a full access to live web server logs.

What will be nice is to have tcpdump-like sniffing tool, but targeting HTTP traffic only. In fact, httpryis extactly that: HTTP packet sniffing tool. httpry captures live HTTP packets on the wire, and displays their content at the HTTP protocol level in a human-readable format. In this tutorial, let’s see how we can sniff HTTP traffic with httpry.

Install httpry on Linux

On Debian-based systems (Ubuntu or Linux Mint), httpry is not available in base repositories. So build it from the source:

$ sudo apt-get install gcc make git libpcap0.8-dev
$ git clone
$ cd httpry
$ make
$ sudo make install

On Fedora, CentOS or RHEL, you can install httpry with yum as follows. On CentOS/RHEL, enableEPEL repo before running yum.

$ sudo yum install httpry

If you still want to build httpry from the source on RPM-based systems, you can easily do that by:

$ sudo yum install gcc make git libpcap-devel
$ git clone
$ cd httpry
$ make
$ sudo make install

Basic Usage of httpry

The basic use case of httpry is as follows.

$ sudo httpry -i <network-interface>

httpry then listens on a specified network interface, and displays captured HTTP requests/responses in real time.

In most cases, however, you will be swamped with the fast scrolling output as packets are coming in and out. So you want to save captured HTTP packets for offline analysis. For that, use either ‘-b’ or ‘-o’ options. The ‘-b’ option allows you to save raw HTTP packets into a binary file as is, which then can be replayed with httpry later. On the other hand, ‘-o’ option saves human-readable output ofhttpry into a text file.

To save raw HTTP packets into a binary file:

$ sudo httpry -i eth0 -b output.dump

To replay saved HTTP packets:

$ httpry -r output.dump

Note that when you read a dump file with ‘-r’ option, you don’t need root privilege.

To save httpry‘s output to a text file:

$ sudo httpry -i eth0 -o output.txt

Advanced Usage of httpry

If you want to monitor only specific HTTP methods (e.g., GET, POST, PUT, HEAD, CONNECT, etc), use ‘-m’ option:

$ sudo httpry -i eth0 -m get,head

If you downloaded httpry‘s source code, you will notice that the source code comes with a collection of Perl scripts which aid in analyzing httpry‘s output. These scripts are found in httpry/scripts/plugins directory. If you want to write a custom parser for httpry‘s output, these scripts can be good examples to start from. Some of their capabilities are:

  • hostnames: Display a list of unique host names with counts.
  • find_proxies: Detect web proxies.
  • search_terms: Find and count search terms entered in search services.
  • content_analysis: Find URIs which contain specific keywords.
  • xml_output: Convert output into XML format.
  • log_summary: Generate a summary of log.
  • db_dump: Dump log file data into a MySQL database.

Before using these scripts, first run httpry with ‘-o’ option for some time. Once you obtained the output file, run the scripts on it at once by using this command:

$ cd httpry/scripts
$ perl -d ./plugins <httpry-output-file>

You may encounter warnings with several plugins. For example, db_dump plugin may fail if you haven’t set up a MySQL database with DBI interface. If a plugin fails to initialize, it will automatically be disabled. So you can ignore those warnings.

After is completed, you will see a number of analysis results (*.txt/xml) in httpry/scripts directory. For example, log_summary.txt looks like the following.

To conclude, httpry can be a life saver if you are in a situation where you need to interpret live HTTP packets. That might not be so common for average Linux users, but it never hurts to be prepared. What do you think of this tool?

Source: Xmodulo

Phishing: Un développeur web recommande l’utilisation de « rel=noopener »

17/05/2016 Comments off

Pour empêcher les attaques par hameçonnage lancées en se servant du window.opener

phishingEn HTML, l’attribut “rel” peut être utilisé sur les balises <a> (qui permet de créer un lien hypertexte pointant vers un document en spécifiant l’URL de celui-ci au niveau de l’attribut « href” et qui permet également de définir des ancres au sein d’un document et les liens pour y accéder), <area> (qui permet de définir une zone particulière d’une image et peut lui associer un lien hypertexte) et <link> (qui permet de définir l’emplacement d’un fichier qui sera accessible au sein de la page où elle est déclarée couramment utilisée pour mettre en relation d’autres documents comme les feuilles de style).

Dans ces différentes balises, il est utilisé pour détailler la relation existante entre le document courant et le document qui sera ouvert par le lien et il prend pour valeur des éléments d’une liste de différentes relations dont les valeurs sont séparées par des virgules (par exemple “alternate”, “author”, “bookmark”, “help”, “license”, “next”, “nofollow”, “noreferrer”, “prefetch”, “prev”, “search”, “tag”).

Mathias Bynens, un développeur web front-end dans la ville de Termonde en Belgique, a voulu partager avec la communauté des développeurs web les bienfaits de l’une des valeurs de l’attribut “rel”, notamment “noreferrer” qui permet entre autres de résoudre un problème, mais lequel ?

En guise de démonstration, dans un billet blog il a proposé une petite expérience. Bynens propose les URL index.html et index/malicious.html. En définissant un lien vers la seconde URL avec l’attribut “target” qui avec la valeur “_blank”, cela va déclencher l’ouverture de la page cible dans une nouvelle fenêtre (dans ce cas la page malicious.html). Pour rappel, lorsqu’une fenêtre est ouverte depuis une autre fenêtre, elle conserve une référence à cette première fenêtre dans window.opener. Si la fenêtre courante n’a pas été ouverte par une autre fenêtre, la méthode renvoie null.

Bynens note que « le document malicious.html dans cette nouvelle page a l’élément windows.opener qui pointe vers l’élément window du document que vous regardez actuellement, c’est-à-dire index.html. Ce qui signifie que lorsque l’utilisateur clique sur le lien, malicious.html a un contrôle total sur l’objet window du document ». Dans le cas d’espèce, malicious.html vient remplacer l’onglet contenant index.html par index.html#hax, qui affiche un message caché.

« Ceci est un exemple relativement inoffensif, mais le lien aurait pu rediriger vers une page d’hameçonnage conçue pour ressembler à la vraie page index.html, demandant des informations de connexion. L’utilisateur ne l’aurait probablement pas remarqué, parce que l’accent est mis sur la page malveillante dans la nouvelle fenêtre tandis que la redirection se passe en arrière-plan. Cette attaque pourrait être encore plus subtile en ajoutant un retard avant de rediriger vers la page de phishing en arrière-plan », a-t-il avancé.

Dans cet exemple, index.html et index/malicious.html ont la même origine. Mais Bynens a indiqué qu’il est possible d’effectuer la même attaque avec des origines différentes.

Que faire pour empêcher que les pages n’abusent de window.opener ? Bynens recommande simplement de se servir de “rel=noopener”, « cela va permettre de vous assurer que window.opener a la valeur “null” sur Chrome 49 et Opera 36. Pour les navigateurs plus anciens, vous pouvez vous servir de “rel=noopener” qui va également désactiver l’en-tête HTTP “Refer”, ou alors vous servir de ce script JavaScript qui va potentiellement activer le bloqueur de popup.

var otherWindow =;
otherWindow.opener = null;
otherWindow.location = URL;
Ne vous servez pas de “target=_blank” (ou tout autre “target” qui ouvre un nouveau contexte de navigation) en particulier pour les liens dans le contenu généré par l’utilisateur, à moins que vous n’ayez une bonne raison ».

Il a déjà averti les éditeurs de navigateurs dans des rapports de bogues. Le problème semble corrigé du côté de Chrome et Opera, mais pas encore chez Firefox, Safari et Edge.

Source : billet Mathias Bynens

Categories: Logiciel Tags: , , ,

Apache Web Server Hardening & Security Guide

13/05/2016 Comments off

apache security best practicesSecure Apache Web Server – Practical Guide

1       Introduction

The Web Server is a crucial part of web-based applications. Apache Web Server is often placed at the edge of the network hence it becomes one of the most vulnerable services to attack. Having default configuration supply many sensitive information which may help hacker to prepare for an attack the web server.

The majority of web application attacks are through XSS, Info Leakage, Session Management and PHP Injection attacks which is due to weak programming code and failure to sanitize web application infrastructure. According to the security vendor Cenzic, 96% of tested applications have vulnerabilities. Below chart from Cenzic shows the vulnerability trend report of 2013.

This practical guide provides you the necessary skill set to secure Apache Web Server.  In this course, we will talk about how to Harden & Secure Apache Web Server on Unix platform. Following are tested on Apache 2.4.x and I don’t see any reason it won’t work with Apache 2.2.x.

  1. This assumes you have installed Apache on UNIX platform. If not, you can go through Installation guide. You can also refer very free video about how to Install Apache, MySQL & PHP.
  2. We will call Apache installation directory /opt/apache as $Web_Server throughout this course.
  3. You are advised to take a backup of existing configuration file before any modification.

1.1  Audience

This is designed for Middleware Administrator, Application Support, System Analyst, or anyone working or eager to learn Hardening & Security guidelines. Fair knowledge of Apache Web Server & UNIX command is mandatory. This is seven page guide, click on Next to proceed. You may navigate through table of contents at right hand side.


BONUS (Download in PDF Format): Apache HTTP Security & Hardening Guide

Lire la suite…

13 Apache Web Server Security and Hardening Tips

29/04/2016 Comments off

Apache-Security-Tips1We all are very familiar with Apache web server, it is a very popular web server to host your web files or your website on the web. Here are some links which can help you to configure Apache web server on your Linux box.

Here in this tutorial, I’ll cover some main tips to secure your web server. Before you apply these changes in your web server, you should have some basics of the Apache server.

  • Document root Directory: /var/www/html or /var/www
  • Main Configuration file: /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf (RHEL/CentOS/Fedora) and /etc/apache/apache2.conf(Debian/Ubuntu).
  • Default HTTP Port: 80 TCP
  • Default HTTPS Port: 443 TCP
  • Test your Configuration file settings and syntax: httpd -t
  • Access Log files of Web Server: /var/log/httpd/access_log
  • Error Log files of Web Server: /var/log/httpd/error_log

1. How to hide Apache Version and OS Identity from Errors

When you install Apache with source or any other package installers like yum, it displays the version of your Apache web server installed on your server with the Operating system name of your server in Errors. It also shows the information about Apache modules installed in your server.



In above picture, you can see that Apache is showing its version with the OS installed in your server. This can be a major security threat to your web server as well as your Linux box too. To prevent Apache to not to display these information to the world, we need to make some changes in Apache main configuration file.

Open configuration file with vim editor and search for “ServerSignature“, its by default On. We need to Off these server signature and the second line “ServerTokens Prod” tells Apache to return only Apache as product in the server response header on the every page request, It suppress the OS, major and minor version info.

# vim /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf (RHEL/CentOS/Fedora)
# vim /etc/apache/apache2.conf (Debian/Ubuntu)
ServerSignature Off
ServerTokens Prod
# service httpd restart (RHEL/CentOS/Fedora)
# service apache2 restart (Debian/Ubuntu)


2. Disable Directory Listing

By default Apache list all the content of Document root directory in the absence of index file. Please see the image below.



We can turn off directory listing by using Options directive in configuration file for a specific directory. For that we need to make an entry in httpd.conf or apache2.conf file.
<Directory /var/www/html>
    Options -Indexes


Lire la suite…

How to Restrict IP Addresses from Accessing your Web Server using .htaccess

07/04/2016 Comments off

If you are running the Apache Web Server or your web hosting provider running Apache based web server, you can use .htaccess configuration file to restrict access to your website. This could be a very important issue from security stand point of view especially if your server is being attacked or hacked from any specific or range of IP addresses.

Now, restricting access method works in two ways. First, you can restrict access to certain IP addresses and allow others. Second, you can restrict access to everyone but few IP addresses only. On this post, I will focus on both method and will try to explain as much as I can.

Restrict Certain IP Addresses

If you want to restrict specific IP addresses from accessing your site, you can use the following lines on your .htaccess file.

order deny,allow
deny from
deny from 654.3.2.1
allow from all

These lines above will block “” and “654.3.2.1” IP addresses from accessing your site. You can add as many IP addresses as you want on this “deny from” list. One interesting fact is, Apache web server gives you lot more flexibility in terms of blocking IP addresses. Take a look at the following lines.

order deny,allow
deny from 123.4.5.
allow from all

If you observe it carefully, you will see that the fourth set of digit is missing on this IP address. It means, if any IP address that matches the first three set of digits will be blocked. So basically anyone with IP address like “” or “” won’t be able to access your site as in both IP address matches with the first three (123.4.5.) sets of digits blocked by the Apache web server.

Allow Specific IP Addresses

Think of about a site that you built for a very specific purpose and for very few people, where you do not want everyone to show up. Apache allows you to do that as well.

For an example, lets assume that you built a site that you want one of your friend to be able to access and his IP address is “”. Simply write the following line on your .htaccess file and you are good to go.

order allow,deny
allow from
deny from all

In this case Apache will block all IP addresses except your friends IP address. This is as simple as it can get and I hope you got the basic idea.

Note: On all of my example I used either “allow from all” or “deny from all” at the bottom, this is very important. You must declare either one of these line based on your requirement or things might get little more complicated.

Also remember that all blocked IP addresses would be forwarded or shown an “403 Forbidden” error message. You can definitely customize this message as well but that’s something I will talk about in another post.


How to configure virtual hosts in Apache HTTP server

18/03/2016 Comments off

Source: Xmodulo

Virtual hosting refers to the technique that allows a physical server to host more than one website domain (e.g.,, Virtual hosting is prevalent in shared web hosting environments, where typically hundreds or more of websites or blogs are packed on a single dedicated server to amortize server maintenance cost.

You are not a web hosting company? Sure, virtual hosting can still be useful to you. For example, you can place multiple websites of yours on one VPS that you rent out, saving on your VPS cost. To serve multiple domains on a VPS, you just need to configure as many virtual hosts on its web server, and point the domains to the static IP address of your VPS.

Due to its usefulness, virtual hosting is supported by all modern web server software such as Apache, Nginx, Lighttpd, IIS. In this tutorial, I will demonstrate how to create and enable virtual hosts in Apache HTTP server under Linux environment. There is slight difference in the configuration between Debian-based and Red Hat-based systems. I will highlight the difference along the way.

Before I start, I assume that Apache HTTP server is already installed on your Linux server. If you haven’t, refer to our tutorials for Debian or Red Hat based systems, and install Apache server before proceeding.

As an exercise, let’s create a virtual host for domain on Apache web server.

Step One: Create Document Root Directory for Domain

Start by creating a directory which will hold the web pages for This directory is known as « document root » for the domain. Following the common practice, let’s organize all document root directories under /var/www, and name them after the corresponding domains. Also, create a dedicated log directory for under /var/log.

$ sudo mkdir /var/www/
$ sudo mkdir /var/log/apache2/ (Debian, Ubuntu, Mint)
$ sudo mkdir /var/log/httpd/ (Fedora, CentOS, RHEL)

Create a test webpage for the domain:

$ sudo vi /var/www/
    <title>Welcome to</title>
    <h1>Sample page</h1>
    This page is powered by Apache Virtual Host!

Change the ownership of the document root directory to the user that Apache web server runs as.

On Debian, Ubuntu or Linux:

$ sudo chown -R www-data:www-data /var/www/

On Fedora, CentOS or RHEL:

$ sudo chown -R apache:apache /var/www/

Lire la suite…

Categories: Logiciel Tags: ,

How to analyze and view Apache web server logs interactively on Linux

17/03/2016 Comments off

analyze apache logsWhether you are in the web hosting business, or run a few web sites on a VPS yourself, chances are you want to display visitor statistics such as top visitors, requested files (dynamic or static), used bandwidth, client browsers, and referring sites, and so forth.

GoAccess is a command-line log analyzer and interactive viewer for Apache or Nginx web server. With this tool, you will not only be able to browse the data mentioned earlier, but also parse the web server logs to dig for further data as well – and all of this within a terminal window in real time. Since as of today most web servers use either a Debian derivative or a Red Hat based distribution as the underlying operating system, I will show you how to install and use GoAccess in Debian and CentOS.

Installing GoAccess on Linux

In Debian, Ubuntu and derivatives, run the following command to install GoAccess:

# aptitude install goaccess

In CentOS, you’ll need to enable the EPEL repository and then:

# yum install goaccess

In Fedora, simply use yum command:

# yum install goaccess

If you want to install GoAccess from the source to enable further options (such as GeoIP location), install required dependencies for your operating system, and then follow these steps:

# wget
# tar -xzvf goaccess-0.8.5.tar.gz
# cd goaccess-0.8.5/
# ./configure --enable-geoip
# make
# make install

That will install version 0.8.5, but you can always verify what is the latest version in the Downloads page of the project’s web site.

Since GoAccess does not require any further configurations, once it’s installed you are ready to go.

Running GoAccess

To start using GoAccess, just run it against your Apache access log.

For Debian and derivatives:

# goaccess -f /var/log/apache2/access.log

For Red Hat based distros:

# goaccess -f /var/log/httpd/access_log

When you first launch GoAccess, you will be presented with the following screen to choose the date and log format. As explained, you can toggle between options using the spacebar and proceed with F10. As for the date and log formats, you may want to refer to the Apache documentation if you need to refresh your memory.

In this case, Choose Common Log Format (CLF):


and then press F10. You will be presented with the statistics screen. For the sake of brevity, only the header, which shows the summary of the log file, is shown in the next image:


Lire la suite…

Prevent DDoS with iptables

17/03/2016 Comments off

Iptables against DDoS

Using iptables to fight DDoS attacks.

After a recent conversation on the Ubuntu Forums I wanted to post an example of using iptables.

Of course there are several types of DOS attacks , in this post I will demonstrating the use if iptables to limit the traffic on port 80.

The goal is to keep your web server “responsive” to legitimate traffic, but to throttle back on excessive (potential DOS) traffic.

In this demonstration iptables is configured :

  1. The default policy is ACCEPT (to prevent lockout in the event of flushing the rules with iptables -F).
  2. “Legitimate” traffic is then allowed. In this example I am allowing traffic only on port 80.
  3. All other traffic is then blocked at the end of the INPUT chain (the final rule in the INPUT chain is to DROP all traffic).

The rules I will demonstrate are as follows:

First rule : Limit NEW traffic on port 80

sudo iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 80 -m state --state NEW -m limit --limit 50/minute --limit-burst 200 -j ACCEPT

Lets break that rule down into intelligible chunks.

-p tcp --dport 80 => Specifies traffic on port 80 (Normally Apache, but as you can see here I am using nginx).

-m state NEW => This rule applies to NEW connections.

-m limit --limit 50/minute --limit-burst 200 -j ACCEPT =>This is the essence of preventing DOS.

  • --limit-burst” is a bit confusing, but in a nutshell 200 new connections (packets really) are allowed before the limit of 50 NEW connections (packets) per minute is applied.

For a more technical review of this rule, see this netfilet page. Scroll down to a bit to the “limit” section.

Second rule – Limit established traffic

This rule applies to RELATED and ESTABLISHED all traffic on all ports, but is very liberal (and thus should not affect traffic on port 22 or DNS).

If you understood the above rule, you should understand this one as well.

sudo iptables -A INPUT -m state --state RELATED,ESTABLISHED -m limit --limit 50/second --limit-burst 50 -j ACCEPT

In summary, 50 ESTABLISHED (and/or RELATED) connections (packets really) are allowed before the limit of 50 ESTABLISHED (and/or RELATED) connections (packets) per second is applied.

Do not let that rule fool you, although it seems very open, it does put some limits on your connections.

Test it for yourself, try using the first rule with and without the second rule.

Lire la suite…

How to configure fail2ban to protect Apache HTTP server

10/03/2016 Comments off

Protecting Apache HTTP server with fail2ban

fail2ban apacheFail2ban: An Apache HTTP server in production environments can be under attack in various different ways. Attackers may attempt to gain access to unauthorized or forbidden directories by using brute-force attacks or executing evil scripts. Some malicious bots may scan your websites for any security vulnerability, or collect email addresses or web forms to send spams to.

Apache HTTP server comes with comprehensive logging capabilities capturing various abnormal events indicative of such attacks. However, it is still non-trivial to systematically parse detailed Apache logs and react to potential attacks quickly (e.g., ban/unban offending IP addresses) as they are perpetrated in the wild. That is when fail2ban comes to the rescue, making a sysadmin‘s life easier.

fail2ban is an open-source intrusion prevention tool which detects various attacks based on system logs and automatically initiates prevention actions e.g., banning IP addresses with iptables, blocking connections via /etc/hosts.deny, or notifying the events via emails. fail2ban comes with a set of predefined « jails » which use application-specific log filters to detect common attacks. You can also write custom jails to deter any specific attack on an arbitrary application.

In this tutorial, I am going to demonstrate how you can configure fail2ban to protect your Apache HTTP server. I assume that you have Apache HTTP server and fail2ban already installed. Refer to another tutorial for fail2ban installation.

What is a Fail2ban Jail

Let me go over more detail on fail2ban jails. A jail defines an application-specific policy under which fail2ban triggers an action to protect a given application. fail2ban comes with several jails pre-defined in /etc/fail2ban/jail.conf, for popular applications such as Apache, Dovecot, Lighttpd, MySQL, Postfix, SSH, etc. Each jail relies on application-specific log filters (found in /etc/fail2ban/fileter.d) to detect common attacks. Let’s check out one example jail: SSH jail.

enabled = true
port = ssh
filter = sshd
logpath = /var/log/auth.log
maxretry = 6
banaction = iptables-multiport

This SSH jail configuration is defined with several parameters:

  • [ssh]: the name of a jail with square brackets.
  • enabled: whether the jail is activated or not.
  • port: a port number to protect (either numeric number of well-known name).
  • filter: a log parsing rule to detect attacks with.
  • logpath: a log file to examine.
  • maxretry: maximum number of failures before banning.
  • banaction: a banning action.

Any parameter defined in a jail configuration will override a corresponding fail2ban-wide default parameter. Conversely, any parameter missing will be assgined a default value defined in [DEFAULT] section.

Predefined log filters are found in /etc/fail2ban/filter.d, and available actions are in /etc/fail2ban/action.d.


If you want to overwrite fail2ban defaults or define any custom jail, you can do so by creating /etc/fail2ban/jail.local file. In this tutorial, I am going to use /etc/fail2ban/jail.local.

Lire la suite…