Articles taggués ‘iptables revisited’

iptables revisited: a not so ordinary ‘firewall’

19/04/2016 Comments off

iptables revisited

Source: Per Linde, Martynas Pumputis and Guillermo Rodr ́ıguez iptables revisited: a not so ordinary ‘firewall’

iptables revisited: Abstract

At the present time, security on the internet, and networks in general have evolved, and become an issue that should not be disregarded. It is well known that many experts recommend Linux as the main operating system for the machines that have to be in charge of security (also for a desktop computer). Linux included a basic firewall tool called ipchains in the series of its kernel until 2.4 version, though after that version it switched to iptables. iptables is known for its efficiency and functionality, but the enormous functionality means a more complex tool to be configured. This paper will overview some mechanisms to do advanced configuration of iptables based on two main scenarios. The different configurations presented will try to prove the remarkable power of iptables as an independent firewall and also as a tool that can work in conjuntion with other tools usually incorporated when included this one.


iptables is a firewall developed by the Netfilter Project 1 . Presently, this firewall is becoming more and more popular (both among end users and network administrators). The popularity of this firewall it closely related to Linux operating system, because iptables works with Linux kernels 2.4 and 2.6 and almost every major Linux distribution comes with pre-installed iptables firewall. This firewall is also known as a stateful packet filter. It is a main difference between iptables and ipchains (an ancestor of iptables that was used with Linux kernel versions up to 2.4). The firewall supports not only a packet filtering, but it is also able to log, forward packets and it could be used together with such tools as psad, snort, etc. In this paper we will look a bit deeper into more advance iptables configurations, but first of all, we would like to introduce a reader to a basic usage of iptables. The core of the firewall consists of four parts [7]: tables, chains, matches and targets. A system administrator is able to define an iptables policy, i.e. tables of chains, which describe how a kernel should react against different groups of packets. Rules are used to create a chain – collection of rules that is applied to every packet. There are five predefined chains:

  • INPUT: used for incoming packets before routing.
  • OUTPUT: used for packets coming into the box itself.
  • FORWARD: used for packets being routed through the box.
  • PREROUTING: used for locally-generated packets before routing.
  • POSTROUTING: used for packets as they about to leave iptables.

Every rule should have a set of matches, that helps to filter packets (e.g. -d matches a destination IP, and it also has to have a target – an action which should be performed when a rule matches on a packet (e.g. ACCEPT, DROP, LOG…). All the examples presented in this paper (excluding the one used at section 6) will be based on the scenario presented in the figure 1. In the following scenario, WebServer#1 ( assigned to its ‘eth0’ interface), WebServer#2 ( assigned to its ‘eth0’ interface) and PC ( assigned to its ‘eth0’ interface) belong to a local network and every packet that comes from the Internet/LAN is filtered by the firewall (‘eth1’ interface for LAN’s traffic, ‘eth0’ for Internet’s traffic). PC ( assigned to ‘eth0’ interface) is reachable directly through the Internet. Capture du 2016-04-19 17:53:32 The listing 1 shows a couple of rules, the first one appends a rule to the end of the INPUT chain and it specifies that every packet from the source with IP address will beDROPed and the second rule logs all outgoing connections from eth1 interface.

iptables -A INPUT -s -j DROP
iptables -A OUTPUT -o eth1 -j LOG

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