Articles taggués ‘Apache’

How To Use Apache JMeter To Perform Load Testing on a Web Server

12/11/2017 Comments off


In this tutorial, we will go over how to use Apache JMeter to perform basic load and stress testing on your web application environment. We will show you how to use the graphical user interface to build a test plan and to run tests against a web server.

JMeter is an open source desktop Java application that is designed to load test and measure performance. It can be used to simulate loads of various scenarios and output performance data in several ways, including CSV and XML files, and graphs. Because it is 100% Java, it is available on every OS that supports Java 6 or later.



In order to follow this tutorial, you will need to have a computer that you can run JMeter on, and a web server to load test against. Do not run these tests against your production servers unless you know they can handle the load, or you may negatively impact your server’s performance.

You may adapt the tests in this tutorial to any of your own web applications. The web server that we are testing against as an example is a 1 CPU / 512 MB VPS running WordPress on a LEMP Stack, in the NYC2 DigitalOcean Datacenter. The JMeter computer is running in the DigitalOcean office in NYC (which is related to the latency of our tests).

Please note that the JMeter test results can be skewed by a variety of factors, including the system resources (CPU and RAM) available to JMeter and the network between JMeter and the web server being tested. The size of the load that JMeter can generate without skewing the results can be increased by running the tests in the non-graphical mode or by distributing the load generation to multiple JMeter servers.  Lire la suite…

How To Install and Secure phpMyAdmin on Ubuntu 16.04

05/11/2017 Comments off


While many users need the functionality of a database management system like MySQL, they may not feel comfortable interacting with the system solely from the MySQL prompt.

phpMyAdmin was created so that users can interact with MySQL through a web interface. In this guide, we’ll discuss how to install and secure phpMyAdmin so that you can safely use it to manage your databases from an Ubuntu 16.04 system. 


Before you get started with this guide, you need to have some basic steps completed.

First, we’ll assume that you are using a non-root user with sudo privileges, as described in steps 1-4 in the initial server setup of Ubuntu 16.04.

We’re also going to assume that you’ve completed a LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP) installation on your Ubuntu 16.04 server. If this is not completed yet, you can follow this guide on installing a LAMP stack on Ubuntu 16.04.

Finally, there are important security considerations when using software like phpMyAdmin, since it:

  • Communicates directly with your MySQL installation
  • Handles authentication using MySQL credentials
  • Executes and returns results for arbitrary SQL queries

For these reasons, and because it is a widely-deployed PHP application which is frequently targeted for attack, you should never run phpMyAdmin on remote systems over a plain HTTP connection. If you do not have an existing domain configured with an SSL/TLS certificate, you can follow this guide on securing Apache with Let’s Encrypt on Ubuntu 16.04.

Once you are finished with these steps, you’re ready to get started with this guide.

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Categories: Bases de données Tags: , ,

How To Secure Apache with Let’s Encrypt on Ubuntu 16.04

25/03/2017 Comments off


This tutorial will show you how to set up a TLS/SSL certificate from Let’s Encrypt on an Ubuntu 16.04 server running Apache as a web server. We will also cover how to automate the certificate renewal process using a cron job.

SSL certificates are used within web servers to encrypt the traffic between the server and client, providing extra security for users accessing your application. Let’s Encrypt provides an easy way to obtain and install trusted certificates for free. 


In order to complete this guide, you will need:

  • An Ubuntu 16.04 server with a non-root sudo user, which you can set up by following our Initial Server Setup guide
  • The Apache web server installed with one or more domain names properly configured through Virtual Hosts that specify ServerName.

When you are ready to move on, log into your server using your sudo account.


Step 1 — Install the Let’s Encrypt Client

First, we will download the Let’s Encrypt client from the official repositories. Although the Let’s Encrypt project has renamed their client to certbot, the client included in the Ubuntu 16.04 repositories is simply called letsencrypt. This version is completely adequate for our purposes.

Update the server’s local apt package indexes and install the client by typing:

  • sudo apt-get update
  • sudo apt-get install python-letsencrypt-apache

The letsencrypt client should now be ready to use.


Step 2 — Set Up the SSL Certificate

Generating the SSL Certificate for Apache using the Let’s Encrypt client is quite straightforward. The client will automatically obtain and install a new SSL certificate that is valid for the domains provided as parameters.

To execute the interactive installation and obtain a certificate that covers only a single domain, run the letsencrypt command like so, where is your domain:

  • sudo letsencrypt --apache -d

If you want to install a single certificate that is valid for multiple domains or subdomains, you can pass them as additional parameters to the command. The first domain name in the list of parameters will be the base domain used by Let’s Encrypt to create the certificate, and for that reason we recommend that you pass the bare top-level domain name as first in the list, followed by any additional subdomains or aliases:

  • sudo letsencrypt --apache -d -d

For this example, the base domain will be

After the dependencies are installed, you will be presented with a step-by-step guide to customize your certificate options. You will be asked to provide an email address for lost key recovery and notices, and you will be able to choose between enabling both http and https access or forcing all requests to redirect to https. It is usually safest to require https, unless you have a specific need for unencrypted http traffic.

When the installation is finished, you should be able to find the generated certificate files at /etc/letsencrypt/live. You can verify the status of your SSL certificate with the following link (don’t forget to replace with your base domain):

You should now be able to access your website using a https prefix.


Step 3 — Set Up Auto Renewal

Let’s Encrypt certificates are valid for 90 days, but it’s recommended that you renew the certificates every 60 days to allow a margin of error. The Let’s Encrypt client has a renew command that automatically checks the currently installed certificates and tries to renew them if they are less than 30 days away from the expiration date.

To trigger the renewal process for all installed domains, you should run:

  • sudo letsencrypt renew

Because we recently installed the certificate, the command will only check for the expiration date and print a message informing that the certificate is not due to renewal yet. The output should look similar to this:

   Processing /etc/letsencrypt/renewal/

   The following certs are not due for renewal yet:
     /etc/letsencrypt/live/ (skipped)
     No renewals were attempted.

Notice that if you created a bundled certificate with multiple domains, only the base domain name will be shown in the output, but the renewal should be valid for all domains included in this certificate.

A practical way to ensure your certificates won’t get outdated is to create a cron job that will periodically execute the automatic renewal command for you. Since the renewal first checks for the expiration date and only executes the renewal if the certificate is less than 30 days away from expiration, it is safe to create a cron job that runs every week or even every day, for instance.

Let’s edit the crontab to create a new job that will run the renewal command every week. To edit the crontab for the root user, run:

  • sudo crontab -e

You may be prompted to select an editor:

no crontab for root - using an empty one

Select an editor.  To change later, run 'select-editor'.
  1. /bin/ed
  2. /bin/nano        <---- easiest
  3. /usr/bin/vim.basic
  4. /usr/bin/vim.tiny

Choose 1-4 [2]:

Unless you’re more comfortable with ed or vim, press Enter to use nano, the default.

Include the following content at the end of the crontab, all in one line:


30 2 * * 1 /usr/bin/letsencrypt renew >> /var/log/le-renew.log

Save and exit. This will create a new cron job that will execute the letsencrypt-auto renew command every Monday at 2:30 am. The output produced by the command will be piped to a log file located at /var/log/le-renewal.log.

For more information on how to create and schedule cron jobs, you can check our How to Use Cron to Automate Tasks in a VPS guide. 



In this guide, we saw how to install a free SSL certificate from Let’s Encrypt in order to secure a website hosted with Apache. We recommend that you check the official Let’s Encrypt blog for important updates from time to time.

Categories: Sécurité, Système Tags:

Phishing: Un développeur web recommande l’utilisation de « rel=noopener »

17/05/2016 Comments off

Pour empêcher les attaques par hameçonnage lancées en se servant du window.opener

phishingEn HTML, l’attribut “rel” peut être utilisé sur les balises <a> (qui permet de créer un lien hypertexte pointant vers un document en spécifiant l’URL de celui-ci au niveau de l’attribut « href” et qui permet également de définir des ancres au sein d’un document et les liens pour y accéder), <area> (qui permet de définir une zone particulière d’une image et peut lui associer un lien hypertexte) et <link> (qui permet de définir l’emplacement d’un fichier qui sera accessible au sein de la page où elle est déclarée couramment utilisée pour mettre en relation d’autres documents comme les feuilles de style).

Dans ces différentes balises, il est utilisé pour détailler la relation existante entre le document courant et le document qui sera ouvert par le lien et il prend pour valeur des éléments d’une liste de différentes relations dont les valeurs sont séparées par des virgules (par exemple “alternate”, “author”, “bookmark”, “help”, “license”, “next”, “nofollow”, “noreferrer”, “prefetch”, “prev”, “search”, “tag”).

Mathias Bynens, un développeur web front-end dans la ville de Termonde en Belgique, a voulu partager avec la communauté des développeurs web les bienfaits de l’une des valeurs de l’attribut “rel”, notamment “noreferrer” qui permet entre autres de résoudre un problème, mais lequel ?

En guise de démonstration, dans un billet blog il a proposé une petite expérience. Bynens propose les URL index.html et index/malicious.html. En définissant un lien vers la seconde URL avec l’attribut “target” qui avec la valeur “_blank”, cela va déclencher l’ouverture de la page cible dans une nouvelle fenêtre (dans ce cas la page malicious.html). Pour rappel, lorsqu’une fenêtre est ouverte depuis une autre fenêtre, elle conserve une référence à cette première fenêtre dans window.opener. Si la fenêtre courante n’a pas été ouverte par une autre fenêtre, la méthode renvoie null.

Bynens note que « le document malicious.html dans cette nouvelle page a l’élément windows.opener qui pointe vers l’élément window du document que vous regardez actuellement, c’est-à-dire index.html. Ce qui signifie que lorsque l’utilisateur clique sur le lien, malicious.html a un contrôle total sur l’objet window du document ». Dans le cas d’espèce, malicious.html vient remplacer l’onglet contenant index.html par index.html#hax, qui affiche un message caché.

« Ceci est un exemple relativement inoffensif, mais le lien aurait pu rediriger vers une page d’hameçonnage conçue pour ressembler à la vraie page index.html, demandant des informations de connexion. L’utilisateur ne l’aurait probablement pas remarqué, parce que l’accent est mis sur la page malveillante dans la nouvelle fenêtre tandis que la redirection se passe en arrière-plan. Cette attaque pourrait être encore plus subtile en ajoutant un retard avant de rediriger vers la page de phishing en arrière-plan », a-t-il avancé.

Dans cet exemple, index.html et index/malicious.html ont la même origine. Mais Bynens a indiqué qu’il est possible d’effectuer la même attaque avec des origines différentes.

Que faire pour empêcher que les pages n’abusent de window.opener ? Bynens recommande simplement de se servir de “rel=noopener”, « cela va permettre de vous assurer que window.opener a la valeur “null” sur Chrome 49 et Opera 36. Pour les navigateurs plus anciens, vous pouvez vous servir de “rel=noopener” qui va également désactiver l’en-tête HTTP “Refer”, ou alors vous servir de ce script JavaScript qui va potentiellement activer le bloqueur de popup.

var otherWindow =;
otherWindow.opener = null;
otherWindow.location = URL;
Ne vous servez pas de “target=_blank” (ou tout autre “target” qui ouvre un nouveau contexte de navigation) en particulier pour les liens dans le contenu généré par l’utilisateur, à moins que vous n’ayez une bonne raison ».

Il a déjà averti les éditeurs de navigateurs dans des rapports de bogues. Le problème semble corrigé du côté de Chrome et Opera, mais pas encore chez Firefox, Safari et Edge.

Source : billet Mathias Bynens

Categories: Logiciel Tags: , ,

Apache Web Server Hardening & Security Guide

13/05/2016 Comments off

apache security best practicesSecure Apache Web Server – Practical Guide

1       Introduction

The Web Server is a crucial part of web-based applications. Apache Web Server is often placed at the edge of the network hence it becomes one of the most vulnerable services to attack. Having default configuration supply many sensitive information which may help hacker to prepare for an attack the web server.

The majority of web application attacks are through XSS, Info Leakage, Session Management and PHP Injection attacks which is due to weak programming code and failure to sanitize web application infrastructure. According to the security vendor Cenzic, 96% of tested applications have vulnerabilities. Below chart from Cenzic shows the vulnerability trend report of 2013.

This practical guide provides you the necessary skill set to secure Apache Web Server.  In this course, we will talk about how to Harden & Secure Apache Web Server on Unix platform. Following are tested on Apache 2.4.x and I don’t see any reason it won’t work with Apache 2.2.x.

  1. This assumes you have installed Apache on UNIX platform. If not, you can go through Installation guide. You can also refer very free video about how to Install Apache, MySQL & PHP.
  2. We will call Apache installation directory /opt/apache as $Web_Server throughout this course.
  3. You are advised to take a backup of existing configuration file before any modification.

1.1  Audience

This is designed for Middleware Administrator, Application Support, System Analyst, or anyone working or eager to learn Hardening & Security guidelines. Fair knowledge of Apache Web Server & UNIX command is mandatory. This is seven page guide, click on Next to proceed. You may navigate through table of contents at right hand side.


BONUS (Download in PDF Format): Apache HTTP Security & Hardening Guide

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