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Linux: 20 Iptables Examples For New SysAdmins

28/09/2017 Comments off

According to the official project site:

netfilter is a set of hooks inside the Linux kernel that allows kernel modules to register callback functions with the network stack. A registered callback function is then called back for every packet that traverses the respective hook within the network stack.

This Linux based firewall is controlled by the program called iptables to handles filtering for IPv4, and ip6tables handles filtering for IPv6. I strongly recommend that you first read our quick tutorial that explains how to configure a host-based firewall called Netfilter (iptables) under CentOS / RHEL / Fedora / Redhat Enterprise Linux. This post lists most simple iptables solutions required by a new Linux user to secure his or her Linux operating system from intruders.

IPTABLES Rules Example

  • Most of the actions listed in this post written with the assumption that they will be executed by the root user running the bash or any other modern shell. Do not type commands on the remote system as it will disconnect your access.
  • For demonstration purpose, I’ve used RHEL 6.x, but the following command should work with any modern Linux distro that use the netfliter.
  • It is NOT a tutorial on how to set iptables. See tutorial here. It is a quick cheat sheet to common iptables commands.

#1: Displaying the Status of Your Firewall

Type the following command as root:
# iptables -L -n -v
Sample outputs:

Chain INPUT (policy ACCEPT 0 packets, 0 bytes)
 pkts bytes target     prot opt in     out     source               destination

Chain FORWARD (policy ACCEPT 0 packets, 0 bytes)
 pkts bytes target     prot opt in     out     source               destination

Chain OUTPUT (policy ACCEPT 0 packets, 0 bytes)
 pkts bytes target     prot opt in     out     source               destination

Above output indicates that the firewall is not active. The following sample shows an active firewall:
# iptables -L -n -v
Sample outputs:

Chain INPUT (policy DROP 0 packets, 0 bytes)
 pkts bytes target     prot opt in     out     source               destination
    0     0 DROP       all  --  *      *       0.0.0.0/0            0.0.0.0/0           state INVALID
  394 43586 ACCEPT     all  --  *      *       0.0.0.0/0            0.0.0.0/0           state RELATED,ESTABLISHED
   93 17292 ACCEPT     all  --  br0    *       0.0.0.0/0            0.0.0.0/0
    1   142 ACCEPT     all  --  lo     *       0.0.0.0/0            0.0.0.0/0

Chain FORWARD (policy DROP 0 packets, 0 bytes)
 pkts bytes target     prot opt in     out     source               destination
    0     0 ACCEPT     all  --  br0    br0     0.0.0.0/0            0.0.0.0/0
    0     0 DROP       all  --  *      *       0.0.0.0/0            0.0.0.0/0           state INVALID
    0     0 TCPMSS     tcp  --  *      *       0.0.0.0/0            0.0.0.0/0           tcp flags:0x06/0x02 TCPMSS clamp to PMTU
    0     0 ACCEPT     all  --  *      *       0.0.0.0/0            0.0.0.0/0           state RELATED,ESTABLISHED
    0     0 wanin      all  --  vlan2  *       0.0.0.0/0            0.0.0.0/0
    0     0 wanout     all  --  *      vlan2   0.0.0.0/0            0.0.0.0/0
    0     0 ACCEPT     all  --  br0    *       0.0.0.0/0            0.0.0.0/0

Chain OUTPUT (policy ACCEPT 425 packets, 113K bytes)
 pkts bytes target     prot opt in     out     source               destination

Chain wanin (1 references)
 pkts bytes target     prot opt in     out     source               destination

Chain wanout (1 references)
 pkts bytes target     prot opt in     out     source               destination

Where,

  • -L : List rules.
  • -v : Display detailed information. This option makes the list command show the interface name, the rule options, and the TOS masks. The packet and byte counters are also listed, with the suffix ‘K’, ‘M’ or ‘G’ for 1000, 1,000,000 and 1,000,000,000 multipliers respectively.
  • -n : Display IP address and port in numeric format. Do not use DNS to resolve names. This will speed up listing.

#1.1: To inspect firewall with line numbers, enter:

# iptables -n -L -v --line-numbers
Sample outputs:

Chain INPUT (policy DROP)
num  target     prot opt source               destination
1    DROP       all  --  0.0.0.0/0            0.0.0.0/0           state INVALID
2    ACCEPT     all  --  0.0.0.0/0            0.0.0.0/0           state RELATED,ESTABLISHED
3    ACCEPT     all  --  0.0.0.0/0            0.0.0.0/0
4    ACCEPT     all  --  0.0.0.0/0            0.0.0.0/0

Chain FORWARD (policy DROP)
num  target     prot opt source               destination
1    ACCEPT     all  --  0.0.0.0/0            0.0.0.0/0
2    DROP       all  --  0.0.0.0/0            0.0.0.0/0           state INVALID
3    TCPMSS     tcp  --  0.0.0.0/0            0.0.0.0/0           tcp flags:0x06/0x02 TCPMSS clamp to PMTU
4    ACCEPT     all  --  0.0.0.0/0            0.0.0.0/0           state RELATED,ESTABLISHED
5    wanin      all  --  0.0.0.0/0            0.0.0.0/0
6    wanout     all  --  0.0.0.0/0            0.0.0.0/0
7    ACCEPT     all  --  0.0.0.0/0            0.0.0.0/0

Chain OUTPUT (policy ACCEPT)
num  target     prot opt source               destination

Chain wanin (1 references)
num  target     prot opt source               destination

Chain wanout (1 references)
num  target     prot opt source               destination

You can use line numbers to delete or insert new rules into the firewall.

#1.2: To display INPUT or OUTPUT chain rules, enter:

# iptables -L INPUT -n -v
# iptables -L OUTPUT -n -v --line-numbers

#2: Stop / Start / Restart the Firewall

If you are using CentOS / RHEL / Fedora Linux, enter:
# service iptables stop
# service iptables start
# service iptables restart

You can use the iptables command itself to stop the firewall and delete all rules:
# iptables -F
# iptables -X
# iptables -t nat -F
# iptables -t nat -X
# iptables -t mangle -F
# iptables -t mangle -X
# iptables -P INPUT ACCEPT
# iptables -P OUTPUT ACCEPT
# iptables -P FORWARD ACCEPT

Where,

  • -F : Deleting (flushing) all the rules.
  • -X : Delete chain.
  • -t table_name : Select table (called nat or mangle) and delete/flush rules.
  • -P : Set the default policy (such as DROP, REJECT, or ACCEPT).

#3: Delete Firewall Rules

To display line number along with other information for existing rules, enter:
# iptables -L INPUT -n --line-numbers
# iptables -L OUTPUT -n --line-numbers
# iptables -L OUTPUT -n --line-numbers | less
# iptables -L OUTPUT -n --line-numbers | grep 202.54.1.1

You will get the list of IP. Look at the number on the left, then use number to delete it. For example delete line number 4, enter:
# iptables -D INPUT 4
OR find source IP 202.54.1.1 and delete from rule:
# iptables -D INPUT -s 202.54.1.1 -j DROP
Where,

  • -D : Delete one or more rules from the selected chain

#4: Insert Firewall Rules

To insert one or more rules in the selected chain as the given rule number use the following syntax. First find out line numbers, enter:
# iptables -L INPUT -n –line-numbers
Sample outputs:

Chain INPUT (policy DROP)
num  target     prot opt source               destination
1    DROP       all  --  202.54.1.1           0.0.0.0/0
2    ACCEPT     all  --  0.0.0.0/0            0.0.0.0/0           state NEW,ESTABLISHED 

To insert rule between 1 and 2, enter:
# iptables -I INPUT 2 -s 202.54.1.2 -j DROP
To view updated rules, enter:
# iptables -L INPUT -n --line-numbers
Sample outputs:

Chain INPUT (policy DROP)
num  target     prot opt source               destination
1    DROP       all  --  202.54.1.1           0.0.0.0/0
2    DROP       all  --  202.54.1.2           0.0.0.0/0
3    ACCEPT     all  --  0.0.0.0/0            0.0.0.0/0           state NEW,ESTABLISHED

#5: Save Firewall Rules

To save firewall rules under CentOS / RHEL / Fedora Linux, enter:
# service iptables save
In this example, drop an IP and save firewall rules:
# iptables -A INPUT -s 202.5.4.1 -j DROP
# service iptables save

For all other distros use the iptables-save command:
# iptables-save > /root/my.active.firewall.rules
# cat /root/my.active.firewall.rules

#6: Restore Firewall Rules

To restore firewall rules form a file called /root/my.active.firewall.rules, enter:
# iptables-restore < /root/my.active.firewall.rules
To restore firewall rules under CentOS / RHEL / Fedora Linux, enter:
# service iptables restart

#7: Set the Default Firewall Policies

To drop all traffic:
# iptables -P INPUT DROP
# iptables -P OUTPUT DROP
# iptables -P FORWARD DROP
# iptables -L -v -n
#### you will not able to connect anywhere as all traffic is dropped ###
# ping cyberciti.biz
# wget http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/v3.0/testing/linux-3.2-rc5.tar.bz2

#7.1: Only Block Incoming Traffic

To drop all incoming / forwarded packets, but allow outgoing traffic, enter:
# iptables -P INPUT DROP
# iptables -P FORWARD DROP
# iptables -P OUTPUT ACCEPT
# iptables -A INPUT -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
# iptables -L -v -n
### *** now ping and wget should work *** ###
# ping cyberciti.biz
# wget http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/v3.0/testing/linux-3.2-rc5.tar.bz2

#8:Drop Private Network Address On Public Interface

IP spoofing is nothing but to stop the following IPv4 address ranges for private networks on your public interfaces. Packets with non-routable source addresses should be rejected using the following syntax:
# iptables -A INPUT -i eth1 -s 192.168.0.0/24 -j DROP
# iptables -A INPUT -i eth1 -s 10.0.0.0/8 -j DROP

#8.1: IPv4 Address Ranges For Private Networks (make sure you block them on public interface)

  • 10.0.0.0/8 -j (A)
  • 172.16.0.0/12 (B)
  • 192.168.0.0/16 (C)
  • 224.0.0.0/4 (MULTICAST D)
  • 240.0.0.0/5 (E)
  • 127.0.0.0/8 (LOOPBACK)

#9: Blocking an IP Address (BLOCK IP)

To block an attackers ip address called 1.2.3.4, enter:
# iptables -A INPUT -s 1.2.3.4 -j DROP
# iptables -A INPUT -s 192.168.0.0/24 -j DROP

#10: Block Incoming Port Requests (BLOCK PORT)

To block all service requests on port 80, enter:
# iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 80 -j DROP
# iptables -A INPUT -i eth1 -p tcp --dport 80 -j DROP

To block port 80 only for an ip address 1.2.3.4, enter:
# iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -s 1.2.3.4 --dport 80 -j DROP
# iptables -A INPUT -i eth1 -p tcp -s 192.168.1.0/24 --dport 80 -j DROP

#11: Block Outgoing IP Address

To block outgoing traffic to a particular host or domain such as cyberciti.biz, enter:
# host -t a cyberciti.biz
Sample outputs:

cyberciti.biz has address 75.126.153.206

Note down its ip address and type the following to block all outgoing traffic to 75.126.153.206:
# iptables -A OUTPUT -d 75.126.153.206 -j DROP
You can use a subnet as follows:
# iptables -A OUTPUT -d 192.168.1.0/24 -j DROP
# iptables -A OUTPUT -o eth1 -d 192.168.1.0/24 -j DROP

#11.1: Example – Block Facebook.com Domain

First, find out all ip address of facebook.com, enter:
# host -t a www.facebook.com
Sample outputs:

www.facebook.com has address 69.171.228.40

Find CIDR for 69.171.228.40, enter:
# whois 69.171.228.40 | grep CIDR
Sample outputs:

CIDR:           69.171.224.0/19

To prevent outgoing access to www.facebook.com, enter:
# iptables -A OUTPUT -p tcp -d 69.171.224.0/19 -j DROP
You can also use domain name, enter:
# iptables -A OUTPUT -p tcp -d www.facebook.com -j DROP
# iptables -A OUTPUT -p tcp -d facebook.com -j DROP

From the iptables man page:

… specifying any name to be resolved with a remote query such as DNS (e.g., facebook.com is a really bad idea), a network IP address (with /mask), or a plain IP address …

#12: Log and Drop Packets

Type the following to log and block IP spoofing on public interface called eth1
# iptables -A INPUT -i eth1 -s 10.0.0.0/8 -j LOG --log-prefix "IP_SPOOF A: "
# iptables -A INPUT -i eth1 -s 10.0.0.0/8 -j DROP

By default everything is logged to /var/log/messages file.
# tail -f /var/log/messages
# grep --color 'IP SPOOF' /var/log/messages

#13: Log and Drop Packets with Limited Number of Log Entries

The -m limit module can limit the number of log entries created per time. This is used to prevent flooding your log file. To log and drop spoofing per 5 minutes, in bursts of at most 7 entries .
# iptables -A INPUT -i eth1 -s 10.0.0.0/8 -m limit --limit 5/m --limit-burst 7 -j LOG --log-prefix "IP_SPOOF A: "
# iptables -A INPUT -i eth1 -s 10.0.0.0/8 -j DROP

#14: Drop or Accept Traffic From Mac Address

Use the following syntax:
# iptables -A INPUT -m mac --mac-source 00:0F:EA:91:04:08 -j DROP
## *only accept traffic for TCP port # 8080 from mac 00:0F:EA:91:04:07 * ##
# iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --destination-port 22 -m mac --mac-source 00:0F:EA:91:04:07 -j ACCEPT

#15: Block or Allow ICMP Ping Request

Type the following command to block ICMP ping requests:
# iptables -A INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type echo-request -j DROP
# iptables -A INPUT -i eth1 -p icmp --icmp-type echo-request -j DROP

Ping responses can also be limited to certain networks or hosts:
# iptables -A INPUT -s 192.168.1.0/24 -p icmp --icmp-type echo-request -j ACCEPT
The following only accepts limited type of ICMP requests:
### ** assumed that default INPUT policy set to DROP ** #############
iptables -A INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type echo-reply -j ACCEPT
iptables -A INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type destination-unreachable -j ACCEPT
iptables -A INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type time-exceeded -j ACCEPT
## ** all our server to respond to pings ** ##
iptables -A INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type echo-request -j ACCEPT

#16: Open Range of Ports

Use the following syntax to open a range of ports:
iptables -A INPUT -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p tcp --dport 7000:7010 -j ACCEPT 

#17: Open Range of IP Addresses

Use the following syntax to open a range of IP address:
## only accept connection to tcp port 80 (Apache) if ip is between 192.168.1.100 and 192.168.1.200 ##
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --destination-port 80 -m iprange --src-range 192.168.1.100-192.168.1.200 -j ACCEPT

## nat example ##
iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -j SNAT --to-source 192.168.1.20-192.168.1.25

#18: Established Connections and Restaring The Firewall

When you restart the iptables service it will drop established connections as it unload modules from the system under RHEL / Fedora / CentOS Linux. Edit, /etc/sysconfig/iptables-config and set IPTABLES_MODULES_UNLOAD as follows:

IPTABLES_MODULES_UNLOAD = no

#19: Help Iptables Flooding My Server Screen

Use the crit log level to send messages to a log file instead of console:
iptables -A INPUT -s 1.2.3.4 -p tcp --destination-port 80 -j LOG --log-level crit

#20: Block or Open Common Ports

The following shows syntax for opening and closing common TCP and UDP ports:

Replace ACCEPT with DROP to block port:
## open port ssh tcp port 22 ##
iptables -A INPUT -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p tcp --dport 22 -j ACCEPT
iptables -A INPUT -s 192.168.1.0/24 -m state --state NEW -p tcp --dport 22 -j ACCEPT
 
## open cups (printing service) udp/tcp port 631 for LAN users ##
iptables -A INPUT -s 192.168.1.0/24 -p udp -m udp --dport 631 -j ACCEPT
iptables -A INPUT -s 192.168.1.0/24 -p tcp -m tcp --dport 631 -j ACCEPT
 
## allow time sync via NTP for lan users (open udp port 123) ##
iptables -A INPUT -s 192.168.1.0/24 -m state --state NEW -p udp --dport 123 -j ACCEPT
 
## open tcp port 25 (smtp) for all ##
iptables -A INPUT -m state --state NEW -p tcp --dport 25 -j ACCEPT
 
# open dns server ports for all ##
iptables -A INPUT -m state --state NEW -p udp --dport 53 -j ACCEPT
iptables -A INPUT -m state --state NEW -p tcp --dport 53 -j ACCEPT
 
## open http/https (Apache) server port to all ##
iptables -A INPUT -m state --state NEW -p tcp --dport 80 -j ACCEPT
iptables -A INPUT -m state --state NEW -p tcp --dport 443 -j ACCEPT
 
## open tcp port 110 (pop3) for all ##
iptables -A INPUT -m state --state NEW -p tcp --dport 110 -j ACCEPT
 
## open tcp port 143 (imap) for all ##
iptables -A INPUT -m state --state NEW -p tcp --dport 143 -j ACCEPT
 
## open access to Samba file server for lan users only ##
iptables -A INPUT -s 192.168.1.0/24 -m state --state NEW -p tcp --dport 137 -j ACCEPT
iptables -A INPUT -s 192.168.1.0/24 -m state --state NEW -p tcp --dport 138 -j ACCEPT
iptables -A INPUT -s 192.168.1.0/24 -m state --state NEW -p tcp --dport 139 -j ACCEPT
iptables -A INPUT -s 192.168.1.0/24 -m state --state NEW -p tcp --dport 445 -j ACCEPT
 
## open access to proxy server for lan users only ##
iptables -A INPUT -s 192.168.1.0/24 -m state --state NEW -p tcp --dport 3128 -j ACCEPT
 
## open access to mysql server for lan users only ##
iptables -I INPUT -p tcp --dport 3306 -j ACCEPT

#21: Restrict the Number of Parallel Connections To a Server Per Client IP

You can use connlimit module to put such restrictions. To allow 3 ssh connections per client host, enter:
# iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --syn --dport 22 -m connlimit --connlimit-above 3 -j REJECT

Set HTTP requests to 20:
# iptables -p tcp --syn --dport 80 -m connlimit --connlimit-above 20 --connlimit-mask 24 -j DROP
Where,

  1. –connlimit-above 3 : Match if the number of existing connections is above 3.
  2. –connlimit-mask 24 : Group hosts using the prefix length. For IPv4, this must be a number between (including) 0 and 32.

#22: HowTO: Use iptables Like a Pro

For more information about iptables, please see the manual page by typing man iptables from the command line:
$ man iptables
You can see the help using the following syntax too:
# iptables -h
To see help with specific commands and targets, enter:
# iptables -j DROP -h

#22.1: Testing Your Firewall

Find out if ports are open or not, enter:
# netstat -tulpn
Find out if tcp port 80 open or not, enter:
# netstat -tulpn | grep :80
If port 80 is not open, start the Apache, enter:
# service httpd start
Make sure iptables allowing access to the port 80:
# iptables -L INPUT -v -n | grep 80
Otherwise open port 80 using the iptables for all users:
# iptables -A INPUT -m state --state NEW -p tcp --dport 80 -j ACCEPT
# service iptables save

Use the telnet command to see if firewall allows to connect to port 80:
$ telnet www.cyberciti.biz 80
Sample outputs:

Trying 75.126.153.206...
Connected to www.cyberciti.biz.
Escape character is '^]'.
^]

telnet> quit
Connection closed.

You can use nmap to probe your own server using the following syntax:
$ nmap -sS -p 80 www.cyberciti.biz
Sample outputs:

Starting Nmap 5.00 ( http://nmap.org ) at 2011-12-13 13:19 IST
Interesting ports on www.cyberciti.biz (75.126.153.206):
PORT   STATE SERVICE
80/tcp open  http

Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 1.00 seconds

I also recommend you install and use sniffer such as tcpdupm and ngrep to test your firewall settings.

CONCLUSION:

This post only list basic rules for new Linux users. You can create and build more complex rules. This requires good understanding of TCP/IP, Linux kernel tuning via sysctl.conf, and good knowledge of your own setup. Stay tuned for next topics:

  • Stateful packet inspection.
  • Using connection tracking helpers.
  • Network address translation.
  • Layer 2 filtering.
  • Firewall testing tools.
  • Dealing with VPNs, DNS, Web, Proxy, and other protocols.
 

How to count total number of word occurrences using grep on Linux or Unix

28/09/2017 Comments off

I want to find out how many times a word (say foo or an IP address) occurs in a text file using the grep command on Linux or Unix-like system?

You can use the grep command to search strings, words, text, and numbers for a given patterns. You can pass the -coption to grep command. It only shows the number of times that the pattern has been matched for each file.

 

 

 

Show the total number of times that the word foo appears in a file named bar.txt

The syntax is:
grep -c string filename
grep -c foo bar.txt

Sample outputs:

3

To count total number of occurrences of word in a file named /etc/passwd root using grep, run:
grep -c root /etc/passwd
To verify that run:
grep --color root /etc/passwd
Pass the -w option to grep to select only an entire word or phrase that matches the specified pattern:
grep -w root /etc/passwd
OR
grep -c -w root /etc/passwd
In this example only match a word being with root:
grep --color -w '^root' /etc/passwd
grep -c -w '^root' /etc/passwd

To show only the matching part of the lines.
grep -o 'root' /etc/passwd
grep -c -o 'root' /etc/passwd

Sample session:

Fig.01: Counting occurrence of words/strings using grep commandFig.01: Counting occurrence of words/strings using grep command

How can I find out if a specific program is installed?

07/11/2016 Comments off

there’s always apt-cache policy <package-name> (no sudo needed).

Not installed:

olivier@neews:/$ apt-cache policy gnuift
 gnuift:
   Installed: (none)
   Candidate: 0.1.14-11
   Version table:
      0.1.14-11 0
         500 http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ oneiric/universe amd64 Packages

Installed:

olivier@neews:/$ apt-cache policy firefox
 firefox:
   Installed: 8.0+build1-0ubuntu0.11.10.3
   Candidate: 8.0+build1-0ubuntu0.11.10.3
   Version table:
  *** 8.0+build1-0ubuntu0.11.10.3 0
         500 http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ oneiric-updates/main amd64 Packages
         500 http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ oneiric-security/main amd64 Packages
         100 /var/lib/dpkg/status
      7.0.1+build1+nobinonly-0ubuntu2 0
         500 http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ oneiric/main amd64 Packages

Or dpkg: dpkg -l | grep -E '^ii' | grep <package name>. When it’s not installed it won’t show output. When it is, it’ll show something like:

olivier@neews:~$ dpkg -l | grep -E '^ii' | grep firefox
 ii  firefox                                                     8.0+build1-0ubuntu0.11.10.3                            Safe and easy web browser from Mozilla
 ii  firefox-branding                                            8.0+build1-0ubuntu0.11.10.3                            Safe and easy web browser from Mozilla - transitional package
 ii  firefox-globalmenu                                          8.0+build1-0ubuntu0.11.10.3                            Unity appmenu integration for Firefox
 ii  firefox-gnome-support                                       8.0+build1-0ubuntu0.11.10.3                            Safe and easy web browser from Mozilla - GNOME support
 ii  firefox-locale-en                                           8.0+build1-0ubuntu0.11.10.3                            English language pack for Firefox
It's obviously a fuzzier search but handy if you're not sure which package you're looking for.
 
 For manually installed things...
 
 A bit harder but if they're on the current path, you could just run them. That's a bit of mission so I'd rather just run:
 
 oli@bert:/$ which chromium-browser
 /usr/bin/chromium-browser

And:

oli@bert:/$ which gnuift
# returns nothing

Which is better?

That depends on the sanity of user. There’s nothing to stop somebody installing something called chromium-browser that isn’t Chromium. They could even package it up incorrectly and install that. Neither method can be 100% certain.

But assuming the owner is sane – packages should be good enough for most people.

Categories: Système Tags: , , ,

How do I replicate installed package selections from one Debian system to another? (Debian Wheezy)

07/11/2016 Comments off

To clone a Debian installation, use the apt-clone utility. It’s available (as a separate package, not part of the default installation) in Debian since wheezy and in Ubuntu since 12.04. On the existing machine, run

apt-clone clone foo

This creates a file foo.apt-clone.tar.gz. Copy it to the destination machine, and run

apt-get install apt-clone
apt-clone restore foo.apt-clone.tar.gz

If you’re working with an old system where apt-clone isn’t available, or if you just want to replicate the list of installed packages but not any configuration file, here are the manual steps.

  • On the source machine:
cat /etc/apt/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list.d >sources.list
pkg --get-selections >selections.list
apt-mark auto >auto.list
  • On the target machine:
cp sources.list /etc/apt/
apt-get update
/usr/lib/dpkg/methods/apt/update /var/lib/dpkg/
dpkg --set-selections <selections.list
apt-get dselect-upgrade
xargs apt-mark auto <auto.list

I believe that you’re affected by an incompatible change in dpkg that first made it into wheezy. See bug #703092 for background.

The short story is that dpkg --set-selections now only accepts package names that are present in the file /var/lib/dpkg/status or /var/lib/dpkg/available. If you only use APT to manage packages, like most people, then /var/lib/dpkg/available is not kept up-to-date.

After running apt-get update and before running dpkg --set-selections and apt-get -u dselect-upgrade, run the following command:

apt-cache dumpavail >/tmp/apt.avail
dpkg --merge-avail /tmp/apt.avail

From jessie onwards, you can simplify this to

apt-cache dumpavail | dpkg --merge-avail

Alternatively, run

/usr/lib/dpkg/methods/apt/update /var/lib/dpkg/

or even simpler

apt-get install dctrl-tools
sync-available

Another simple method that doesn’t require installing an additional package but will download the package lists again is

dselect update

See the dpkg FAQ for more information. (This is mentioned in the dpkg man page, but more in a way that would remind you of the issue if you were already aware, not in a way that explains how to solve the problem!)

Note that cloning a package installation with dpkg --set-selections doesn’t restore the automatic/manual mark in APT. See Restoring all data and dependencies from dpkg –set-selections ‘*’ for more details. You can save the marks on the source system with

apt-mark showauto >auto.list

and restore them on the target system with

xargs apt-mark auto <auto.list
Categories: Système Tags: , ,

How to configure a syslog server with rsyslog on Linux

04/03/2016 Comments off

rsyslog linuxA syslog server represents a central log monitoring point on a network, to which all kinds of devices including Linux or Windows servers, routers, switches or any other hosts can send their logs over network. By setting up a syslog server, you can filter and consolidate logs from different hosts and devices into a single location, so that you can view and archive important log messages more easily.

On most Linux distributions, rsyslog is the standard syslog daemon that comes pre-installed. Configured in a client/server architecture, rsyslog can play both roles; as a syslog server rsyslog can gather logs from other devices, and as a syslog client, rsyslog can transmit its internal logs to a remote syslog server.

In this tutorial, we cover how to configure a centralized syslog server using rsyslog on Linux. Before we go into the details, it is instructive to go over syslog standard first.

Basic of Syslog Standard

When logs are collected with syslog mechanism, three important things must be taken into consideration:

  • Facility level: what type of processes to monitor
  • Severity (priority) level: what type of log messages to collect
  • Destination: where to send or record log messages

Let’s take a look at how the configuration is defined in more detail.

The facility levels define a way to categorize internal system processes. Some of the common standard facilities in Linux are:

  • auth: messages related to authentication (login)
  • cron: messages related to scheduled processes or applications
  • daemon: messages related to daemons (internal servers)
  • kernel: messages related to the kernel
  • mail: messages related to internal mail servers
  • syslog: messages related to the syslog daemon itself
  • lpr: messages related to print servers
  • local0 – local7: messages defined by user (local7 is usually used by Cisco and Windows servers)

The severity (priority) levels are standardized, and defined by using standard abbreviation and an assigned number with number 7 being the highest level of all. These levels are:

  • emerg: Emergency – 0
  • alert: Alerts – 1
  • crit: Critical – 2
  • err: Errors – 3
  • warn: Warnings – 4
  • notice: Notification – 5
  • info: Information – 6
  • debug: Debugging – 7

Finally, the destination statement enforces a syslog client to perform one of three following tasks: (1) save log messages on a local file, (2) route them to a remote syslog server over TCP/UDP, or (3) send them to stdout such as a console.

In rsyslog, syslog configuration is structured based on the following schema.

[facility-level].[severity-level]  [destination]

Lire la suite…

Categories: Système Tags: , ,