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Articles taggués ‘dpkg’

Debian Linux apt-get package management cheat sheet

24/09/2015 Comments off

Source: nixCraft

Both Debian and Ubuntu Linux provides a number of package management tools. This article summaries package management command along with it usage and examples for you.

  • apt-get : APT is acronym for Advanced Package Tool. It supports installing packages over internet using ftp or http protocols. You can also upgrade all packages in a single operations, which makes it even more attractive.
  • dpkg : Debian packaging tool which can be use to install, query, uninstall packages.

Gui tools: You can also try GUI based or high level interface to the Debian GNU/Linux package system. Following list summaries them:

  • aptitude: It is a text-based interface to the Debian GNU/Linux package system.
  • synaptic: GUI front end for APT

Red hat Linux package names generally end in .rpm, similarly Debian package names end in .deb, for example:

apache_1.3.31-6_i386.deb

Where,

  1. apache : Package name
  2. 1.3.31-6 : Version number
  3. i386 : Hardware Platform on which this package will run (i386 == intel x86 based system)
  4. .deb : Extension that suggest it is a Debian package

Remember, whenever I refer .deb file it signifies complete file name, and whenever I refer package name it must be first part of .deb file. For example, when I refer to a package sudo it means sudo only and not the .deb file i.e. sudo_1.6.7p5-2_i386.deb. You can find out debian package name with the following command:

apt-cache search {package-name}
apt-cache search apache

Finally, most of the actions listed in this post are written with the assumption that they will be executed by the root user running the bash or any other modern shell. Lire la suite…

Categories: Système Tags: , , , , ,

Clone Your Ubuntu installation

28/05/2015 Comments off

If you want to create a system that is similar to a different system you have already set up, it can be difficult to remember each and every package you had installed.This method works best when you are exporting to and importing from the same distribution and, specifically, the same releasefor example, exporting from Ubuntu Dapper to Ubuntu Dapper or ubuntu edgy to ubuntu edgy.

Ubuntu uses the APT package management system which handles installed packages and their dependencies. If we can get a list of currently installed packages you can very easily duplicate exactly what you have installed now on your new machine. Below is a command you can use to export a list of your installed packages.

sudo dpkg --get-selections | grep '[[:space:]]install$='| awk '{print $1}' > installedpackages
Now you should end up with a file called “installedpackages” which consists of a long list of every package your currently have installed.

The next step would be to tell the clone machine to install each of those packages. You’ll have to copy that file to the clone machine (via network, usb drive, email, etc) and also make sure to duplicate the /etc/apt/sources.list file. Without the same access to repositories it may not be able to find the packages.

To tell your system to use the previously exported package list use the following command (after making sure to also clone your /etc/apt/sources.list file).

Update the source list using the following command

sudo aptitude update

Import the package list using the following command

cat installedpackages | xargs sudo aptitude install

 

dpkg –set-selections results in “warning: package not in database….”

06/05/2015 Comments off

When you want to restore your packages that you’ve backup-ed with :

sudo dpkg --get_selections > selections.txt

And when you restore them with:

dpkg --set-selections < selections.txt

And the result is a whole bunch of warnings like “warning: package blabla not in database….”

Then theres a easy fix:

$ sudo apt-get install dselect
$ sudo dselect 
 -> Update
 -> Install
Categories: Système Tags: , , ,

How to list all installed packages?

06/05/2015 Comments off

To get a list of packages installed locally do this in your terminal:

dpkg --get-selections | grep -v deinstall

To save that list to a text file called packages on your desktop do this in your terminal:

dpkg --get-selections | grep -v deinstall > ~/Desktop/packages

Best way to backup all settings, list of installed packages, tweaks, etc?

28/01/2014 Comments off

Programs

 

A quick way of backing up a list of programs is to run this:

dpkg --get-selections > ~/Package.list
sudo cp /etc/apt/sources.list ~/sources.list
sudo apt-key exportall > ~/Repo.keys

 

It will back them up in a format that dpkg can read for after your reinstall, like this:

sudo apt-key add ~/Repo.keys
sudo cp ~/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list 
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install dselect
sudo dpkg --set-selections < ~/Package.list
sudo apt-get dselect-upgrade -y

 

Settings and Personal Data

 

Before you reinstall, you should probably back up the settings from some of your programs, this can easily be done by grabbing folders from /etc and all the content from your user directory (not just the stuff you can see in nautilus!):

rsync --progress /home/`whoami` /path/to/user/profile/backup/here

 

After you reinstall, you can restore it with:

rsync --progress /path/to/user/profile/backup/here /home/`whoami`

 

So all together as a pseudo-bash script.

 

This assumes there is only one user on the machine (remove /'whoami' otherwise) and that you used the same username on both installs (modify dest. of rsync otherwise).

dpkg --get-selections > ~/Package.list
sudo cp /etc/apt/sources.list ~/sources.list
sudo apt-key exportall > ~/Repo.keys
rsync --progress /home/`whoami` /path/to/user/profile/backup/here

##  Reinstall now

rsync --progress /path/to/user/profile/backup/here /home/`whoami`
sudo apt-key add ~/Repo.keys
sudo cp ~/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list 
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install dselect
sudo dpkg --set-selections < ~/Package.list
sudo dselect

 

Dupliquer un système Debian / Ubuntu

07/11/2012 Comments off

Dupliquer un système consiste à installer, sur une machine, exactement les mêmes paquets que sur une autre. La technique n’a rien de nouveau en soi, mais il est toujours bon de la rappeler. Sous les dérivés de Debian, “dpkg” permet d’effectuer cette opération rapidement.

Sur la machine à dupliquer, exporter la liste des paquets installés :

# dpkg --get-selections > lstpkg.dpkg

Sur la machine à installer, commencez par poser un système minimal (installation via le CD-Rom “businesscard” sans sélectionner aucun groupe de paquets). Copiez la liste des paquets exportée depuis la machine à dupliquer et importez la dans le gestionnaire de paquets local :

# dpkg --set-selections < lstpkg.dpkg

puis lancez l’installation des paquets ainsi sélectionnés :

# apt-get dselect-upgrade

Note 1 : si vous souhaitez des machines réellement identique, commencez par copier “/etc/passwd” et “/etc/group” de la machine à dupliquer sur la machine cible afin que les programmes installés utilisent les mêmes UIDs et GIDs (exemple : bind, apache, etc…).

Note 2 : Lors de la sauvegarde des configurations de serveurs, conserver un export de la liste des paquets installés sur chacun d’eux peut faire gagner beaucoup de temps en cas de problème…

Source: admin-linux.fr