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Articles taggués ‘performance’

Des requêtes SQL pour vous sauver la vie avec WordPress

18/03/2019 Comments off

sql wordpressVous avez changé votre blog WordPress de serveur et de domaine et là plus rien ne marche?

Vous voulez faire le ménage dans votre base de données ?

Et bien voici quelques exemples de requêtes SQL qui vous aiderons à faire tout ça rapidement et sans prise de tête.

Sauvegarde:

Avant de commencer la chose la plus importante à faire c’est de sauvegarder votre base de donnée.

Pour cela, plusieurs solutions s’offre à vous.

Soit vous utilisez directement une extensions WordPress tel que WP-DB-Backup ou WP-DBManager, ou alors vous pouvez le faire manuellement depuis l’interface de phpMyAdmin en suivant la procédure suivante:

  1. Connectez vous sur phpMyAdmin.
  2. Sélectionnez votre base WordPress.
  3. Cliquez sur « exporter » dans le menu en haut de la page.
  4. Sélectionnez les tables à sauvegarder.
  5. Sélectionnez SQL pour avoir un fichier de sortie en .sql.
  6. Cochez la case « Transmettre«
  7. Vous pouvez choisir un type de compression afin de réduire la taille de votre fichier.
  8. Cliquez sur « Exécuter » et le fichier devrait se télécharger.

phpmyadmin-export

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Benchmark Your Webpage with Siege

15/03/2019 Comments off

Siege_Benchmark_WebpageA few articles ago, I wrote about using the “apachebench” or “ab” utility to benchmark your website (see: apachebench). Ab is a great tool, but since then, I have found and fallen in love with a new tool for benchmarking your website. This new tool is named “siege”.

Install Siege on CentOS 6

CentOS 6 has added the siege package to the CentOS EPEL (Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux) repository which makes installation easy using yum if you have the EPEL repository installed. If you need to install it still, you can do it using these quick steps:

# wget http://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/6/x86_64/epel-release-6-8.noarch.rpm
# rpm -Uvh ./epel-release-6-8.noarch.rpm
Preparing...                ########################################### [100%]
package epel-release-6-8.noarch is already installed

Once the EPEL repository is installed, you can go ahead and install the siege package:

# yum install siege

Using Siege to Benchmark Your Website

We can get really detailed usage information on the siege utility in the man pages. We can get a list of the switches that siege can use by using the –help option:

# siege --help
SIEGE 3.0.0
Usage: siege [options]
       siege [options] URL
       siege -g URL
Options:
  -V, --version             VERSION, prints the version number.
  -h, --help                HELP, prints this section.
  -C, --config              CONFIGURATION, show the current config.
  -v, --verbose             VERBOSE, prints notification to screen.
  -q, --quiet               QUIET turns verbose off and suppresses output.
  -g, --get                 GET, pull down HTTP headers and display the
                            transaction. Great for application debugging.
  -c, --concurrent=NUM      CONCURRENT users, default is 10
  -i, --internet            INTERNET user simulation, hits URLs randomly.
  -b, --benchmark           BENCHMARK: no delays between requests.
  -t, --time=NUMm           TIMED testing where "m" is modifier S, M, or H
                            ex: --time=1H, one hour test.
  -r, --reps=NUM            REPS, number of times to run the test.
  -f, --file=FILE           FILE, select a specific URLS FILE.
  -R, --rc=FILE             RC, specify an siegerc file
  -l, --log[=FILE]          LOG to FILE. If FILE is not specified, the
                            default is used: PREFIX/var/siege.log
  -m, --mark="text"         MARK, mark the log file with a string.
  -d, --delay=NUM           Time DELAY, random delay before each requst
                            between 1 and NUM. (NOT COUNTED IN STATS)
  -H, --header="text"       Add a header to request (can be many)
  -A, --user-agent="text"   Sets User-Agent in request
  -T, --content-type="text" Sets Content-Type in request

Copyright (C) 2013 by Jeffrey Fulmer, et al.
This is free software; see the source for copying conditions.
There is NO warranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS
FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

so, with these options in mind, allow me to demonstrate a few of the coolest siege options that I like best:

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Categories: Système Tags: , ,

Simple Stateful Load Balancer with iptables and NAT

02/03/2019 Comments off

To demonstrate how iptables can perform network address translation this how-to shows how to use it to implement a over-simplified load balancer. In practice we would use a daemon such as HAProxy allowing IP tables to check packets before forwarding them.

Using the method presented in this tutorial packets get forwarded without going through the INPUT, FORWARD and OUTPUT chains.

iptables is a powerful tool that is used to create rules for how incoming or outgoing packets are handled. It keeps track of a packets state – there is NEW, ESTABLISHED, RELATED, INVALID and UNTRACKED. It can make filtering decisions based on the packets header data and the payload section of the packet, for these purposes iptables even has regular expression matching.

On top of that iptables has extensions that can be used to filter packets based on a packets history so we can keep track of packets and sessions. We can set filters to only trigger at specific times, parse the packet contents and header information searching for specific patterns, differentiate protocols such as tcp, udp, icmp, etc.

For load balancing behavior we want the incoming packets on one machine to be routed to another machine. iptables has extentions that helps us achieve this aim but we also need to muck around with its internal PREROUTING and POSTROUTING table, which is not recommended as this could potentially pose a security risk. lets use iptables to route all traffic coming in on an interface eth0 with a destination port 80 and route it to another IP address:

Allow IP forwarding

(Note: if your testing this on the same box your doing this on it won’t work, you need at least 3 machines to test this out, virtual ones work nicely)

First we enable ipv4 forwarding or this will not work:
# echo "1" > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward

XOR

# sysctl net.ipv4.ip_forward=1

next we add a filter that changes the packets destination ip and allows us to masquerade:

# iptables -t nat -A PREROUTING -i eth0 -p tcp --dport 80 -j DNAT --to-destination 10.0.0.3:80
# iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -j MASQUERADE

The above filter gets added to iptables PREROUTING chain. The packets first go through the filters in the PREROUTING chain before iptables decides where they go. The above filter says all packets input into eth0 that use tcp protocol and have a destination port 80 will have their destination address changed to 1.2.3.4 port 80. The DNAT target in this case is responsible for changing the packets Destination IP address. Variations of this might include mapping to a different port on the same machine or perhaps to another interface all together, that is how one could implement a simple stateful vlan (in theory).

The masquerade option acts as a one to many NAT server allowing one machine to route traffic with one centralized point of access. This is similar to how many commercial firewalls and network routers function.

The above ruleset results in all incoming packets to dport 80 traversing the iptables chains in a straight line from INCOMING to OUTGOING in the image below, effectively bypassing any rules we might have had in our INPUT chain. If we were to choose to implement nat like this we would need to implement those – our desired INPUT filter rules – on the machines where traffic is forwarded OR add them to the FORWARD chain if we want to block things before they are forwarded (Note: packets might go through FORWARD chain in both directions so direction needs to be considered when writing filters for this chain).

560x260xbuilt-in-chains-in-filter-table.png.pagespeed.ic.CVAYVeFJ96

Path incoming packets take through iptables chains

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Nmon – A nifty little tool to monitor system resources on Linux

28/02/2019 Comments off

Source: binarytides.com

Nmon

Nmon (Nigel’s performance Monitor for Linux) is another very useful command line utility that can display information about various system resources like cpu, memory, disk, network etc. It was developed at IBM and later released open source.

It is available for most common architectures like x86, ARM and platforms like linux, unix etc. It is interactive and the output is well organised similar to htop.

Using Nmon it is possible to view the performance of different system resources on a single screen.
The man page describes nmon as

nmon is is a systems administrator, tuner, benchmark tool. It can display the CPU, memory, network, disks (mini graphs or numbers), file systems, NFS, top processes, resources (Linux version & processors) and on Power micro-partition information.

Project website
http://nmon.sourceforge.net/

Install Nmon

Debian/Ubuntu type distros have nmon in the default repos, so grab it with apt.

$ sudo apt-get install nmon

Fedora users can get it with yum

$ sudo yum install nmon

CentOS users need to install nmon from rpmforge/repoforge repository. It is not present in Epel.
Either download the correct rpm installer from

http://pkgs.repoforge.org/nmon/

Or setup the rpmforge repository by following the instructions here
http://wiki.centos.org/AdditionalResources/Repositories/RPMForge

And then install using yum

$ sudo yum install nmon

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Categories: Système Tags: ,

Glances gives a quick overview of system usage on Linux

28/02/2019 Comments off

Monitor your Linux system

glances system linuxAs a Linux sysadmin it feels great power when monitoring system resources like cpu, memory on the commandline. To peek inside the system is a good habit here atleast, because that’s one way of driving your Linux system safe. Plenty of tools like Htop, Nmon, Collectl, top and iotop etc help you accomplish the task. Today lets try another tool called Glances.

Glances

Glances is a tool similar to Nmon that has a very compact display to provide a complete overview of different system resources on just a single screen area. It does not support any complex functionality but just gives a brief overview CPU, Load, Memory, Network rate, Disk IO, file system, process number and details.

As a bonus, glances is actually cross platform, which means you can use it on obsolete OSes like windows :P.

Here’s a quick glimpse of it.

glances-linux

The output is color highlighted. Green indicates optimum levels of usage whereas red indicates that the particular resource is under heavy use.

$ glances -v
Glances version 1.6 with PsUtil 0.6.1

Project homepage https://github.com/nicolargo/glances http://nicolargo.github.io/glances/

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