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Articles taggués ‘administration’

Protéger ses images contre le Hotlinking

29/09/2022 Aucun commentaire
fonctionnement-hotlinkLe hotlinking est une pratique courante qui consiste, le plus souvent, à afficher une image en utilisant l’adresse URL en provenance d’un autre site où elle est publiée. En fait, au lieu de stocker l’image sur son serveur, le hotlinkeur crée un lien direct vers le serveur d’origine.Principe du Hotlinking en schéma.Cette méthode est totalement illégale puisqu’il s’agit d’un vol de bande passante. En effet, à chaque fois que l’image est visionnée par un internaute, une requête HTTP est envoyée vers le serveur qui l’héberge. Cela ralentit le serveur qui doit fournir les images hotlinkées en plus des images du site d’origine. De plus, cela peut engendrer un coût financier supplémentaire puisque certains hébergeurs prennent en compte le trafic mensuel de données afin d’éviter les abus et de préserver la bande passante.

Pour lutter contre le hotlinking, il suffit de copier le code suivant dans le fichier .htaccess présent à la racine de votre projet. Il permet de remplacer l’image volée par une autre destinée à dissuader le hotlinkeur (par ex: http://p7.storage.canalblog.com/78/13/603253/75105879.jpg).

RewriteEngine On
# Remplacer mywebsite\.com/ par l'adresse de votre site
RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} !^http://(.+\.)?mywebsite\.com/ [NC]
RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} !^$
# Remplacer /images/nohotlink.jpg par le chemin de l'image affichée chez les voleurs
RewriteRule .*\.(jpe?g|gif|bmp|png)$ /images/nohotlink.jpg [L]

mod_geoip2 Apache module

27/09/2022 Aucun commentaire

The mod_geoip2 module embeds GeoIP database lookups into the Apache web server. It is only capable of looking up the IP of a client that connects to the web server, as opposed to looking up arbitrary addresses.

This module works with Apache 2. Please use mod_geoip with Apache 1.

Installation

You may download the latest release of mod_geoip2 or get the latest development version from GitHub. See the included INSTALL file in the tarball for installation details.

Overview

The mod_geoip2 module uses the libGeoIP library to look up geolocation information for a client as part of the http request process. This module is free software, and is licensed under the Apache license.

To compile and install this module, you must first install libGeoIP 1.4.3 or newer.

The mod_geoip2 module takes effect either during request header parsing phase or the post read request phase, depending on whether it is configured for server-wide use or for a specific location/directory.

When enabled, the module looks at the incoming IP address and sets some variables which provide geolocation information for that IP. The variables it set depend on the specific GeoIP database being used (Country, City, ISP, etc.). These variables can be set in either the request notes table, the environment or both depending on the server configuration.

Lire la suite…

Sauvegarder ses données avec Rsync

26/09/2022 Aucun commentaire

Source: journaldunadminlinux.fr

En parcourant pas mal de forums, j’ai pu remarquer que pas mal de jeunes admins ne connaissaient pas Rync.

Rsync est un petit outil de sauvegarde extrêmement puissant. Grâce à cette outil j’ai pu sauvegarder des centaines de  giga-octet de données sans problèmes.

Rsync se charge en plus de garder tous les droits et attributs de vos fichiers et gère en natif SSH pour faire une sauvegarde d’une machine vers une autre. Lire la suite…

Create DNS Service Location (SRV) records for the Exchange Autodiscover service

25/09/2022 Aucun commentaire

Source: Upwards with SBS

In earlier blog posts I’ve discussed other DNS records such as the TXT SPF record.  This is a new but very important record that you will want in place for your domain.

Here’s a list of great resources that describe this in detail and include guidance to manually create and publish the record to whomever is hosting your DNS records for the domain.

Categories: Logiciel, Réseau Tags: ,

CIDR subnet mask cheatsheet ICMP type codes

24/09/2022 Aucun commentaire

Source: oav.net

255.255.255.255  11111111.11111111.11111111.11111111  /32  Host (single addr)
255.255.255.254  11111111.11111111.11111111.11111110  /31  Unuseable
255.255.255.252  11111111.11111111.11111111.11111100  /30    2  useable
255.255.255.248  11111111.11111111.11111111.11111000  /29    6  useable
255.255.255.240  11111111.11111111.11111111.11110000  /28   14  useable
255.255.255.224  11111111.11111111.11111111.11100000  /27   30  useable
255.255.255.192  11111111.11111111.11111111.11000000  /26   62  useable
255.255.255.128  11111111.11111111.11111111.10000000  /25  126  useable
255.255.255.0    11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000  /24 "Class C" 254 useable

255.255.254.0    11111111.11111111.11111110.00000000  /23    2  Class C's
255.255.252.0    11111111.11111111.11111100.00000000  /22    4  Class C's
255.255.248.0    11111111.11111111.11111000.00000000  /21    8  Class C's
255.255.240.0    11111111.11111111.11110000.00000000  /20   16  Class C's
255.255.224.0    11111111.11111111.11100000.00000000  /19   32  Class C's
255.255.192.0    11111111.11111111.11000000.00000000  /18   64  Class C's
255.255.128.0    11111111.11111111.10000000.00000000  /17  128  Class C's
255.255.0.0      11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000  /16  "Class B"
     
255.254.0.0      11111111.11111110.00000000.00000000  /15    2  Class B's
255.252.0.0      11111111.11111100.00000000.00000000  /14    4  Class B's
255.248.0.0      11111111.11111000.00000000.00000000  /13    8  Class B's
255.240.0.0      11111111.11110000.00000000.00000000  /12   16  Class B's
255.224.0.0      11111111.11100000.00000000.00000000  /11   32  Class B's
255.192.0.0      11111111.11000000.00000000.00000000  /10   64  Class B's
255.128.0.0      11111111.10000000.00000000.00000000  /9   128  Class B's
255.0.0.0        11111111.00000000.00000000.00000000  /8   "Class A"
  
254.0.0.0        11111110.00000000.00000000.00000000  /7
252.0.0.0        11111100.00000000.00000000.00000000  /6
248.0.0.0        11111000.00000000.00000000.00000000  /5
240.0.0.0        11110000.00000000.00000000.00000000  /4
224.0.0.0        11100000.00000000.00000000.00000000  /3
192.0.0.0        11000000.00000000.00000000.00000000  /2
128.0.0.0        10000000.00000000.00000000.00000000  /1
0.0.0.0          00000000.00000000.00000000.00000000  /0   IP space

                                   Net     Host    Total
Net      Addr                      Addr    Addr    Number
Class   Range      NetMask         Bits    Bits   of hosts
----------------------------------------------------------
A        0-127    255.0.0.0         8      24     16777216   (i.e. 114.0.0.0)
B      128-191    255.255.0.0      16      16        65536   (i.e. 150.0.0.0)
C      192-254    255.255.255.0    24       8          256   (i.e. 199.0.0.0)
D      224-239    (multicast)
E      240-255    (reserved)
F      208-215    255.255.255.240  28       4           16
G      216/8      ARIN - North America
G      217/8      RIPE NCC - Europe
G      218-219/8  APNIC
H      220-221    255.255.255.248  29       3            8   (reserved)
K      222-223    255.255.255.254  31       1            2   (reserved)
(ref: RFC1375 & http://www.iana.org/assignments/ipv4-address-space )
(               http://www.iana.org/numbers.htm                    )
----------------------------------------------------------

The current list of special use prefixes:
	0.0.0.0/8	
	127.0.0.0/8
	192.0.2.0/24
	10.0.0.0/8
	172.16.0.0/12
	192.168.0.0/16
	169.254.0.0/16
	all D/E space
(ref: RFC1918 http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc1918.txt   )
(       or     ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc1918.txt     )
(rfc search:   http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfcsearch.html   )
(              http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt )
(              http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html            )


Martians: (updates at: www.iana.org/assignments/ipv4-address-space )
 no ip source-route
 access-list 100 deny   ip host 0.0.0.0 any
  deny ip 0.0.0.0         0.255.255.255  any log  ! antispoof
  deny ip 0.0.0.0 0.255.255.255  0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 ! antispoof
  deny ip any             255.255.255.128 0.0.0.127 ! antispoof
  deny ip host            0.0.0.0        any log  ! antispoof
  deny ip host            [router intf]  [router intf] ! antispoof
  deny ip xxx.xxx.xxx.0   0.0.0.255      any log  ! lan area
  deny ip 0/8             0.255.255.255  any log  ! IANA - Reserved
  deny ip 1/8             0.255.255.255  any log  ! IANA - Reserved
  deny ip 2/8             0.255.255.255  any log  ! IANA - Reserved
  deny ip 5/8             0.255.255.255  any log  ! IANA - Reserved
  deny ip 7/8             0.255.255.255  any log  ! IANA - Reserved
  deny ip 10.0.0.0        0.255.255.255  any log  ! IANA - Private Use
  deny ip 23/8            0.255.255.255  any log  ! IANA - Reserved
  deny ip 27/8            0.255.255.255  any log  ! IANA - Reserved
  deny ip 31/8            0.255.255.255  any log  ! IANA - Reserved
  deny ip 36-37/8         0.255.255.255  any log  ! IANA - Reserved
  deny ip 39/8            0.255.255.255  any log  ! IANA - Reserved
  deny ip 41-42/8         0.255.255.255  any log  ! IANA - Reserved
  deny ip 50/8            0.255.255.255  any log  ! IANA - Reserved
  deny ip 58-60/8         0.255.255.255  any log  ! IANA - Reserved
  deny ip 69-79/8         0.255.255.255  any log  ! IANA - Reserved
  deny ip 82-95/8         0.255.255.255  any log  ! IANA - Reserved
  deny ip 96-126/8        0.255.255.255  any log  ! IANA - Reserved
  deny ip 127/8           0.255.255.255  any log  ! IANA - Reserved
  deny ip 169.254.0.0     0.0.255.255    any log  ! link-local network
  deny ip 172.16.0.0      0.15.255.255   any log  ! reserved
  deny ip 192.168.0.0     0.0.255.255    any log  ! reserved
  deny ip 192.0.2.0       0.0.0.255      any log  ! test network
  deny ip 197/8           0.255.255.255  any log  ! IANA - Reserved
  deny ip 220/8           0.255.255.255  any log  ! IANA - Reserved
  deny ip 222-223/8       0.255.255.255  any log  ! IANA - Reserved
  deny ip 224.0.0.0       31.255.255.255 any log  ! multicast
  deny ip 224.0.0.0       15.255.255.255 any log  ! unless MBGP-learned routes
  deny ip 224-239/8       0.255.255.255  any log  ! IANA - Multicast
  deny ip 240-255/8       0.255.255.255  any log  ! IANA - Reserved

filtered source addresses
  0/8                 ! broadcast
  10/8                ! RFC 1918 private
  127/8               ! loopback
  169.254.0/16        ! link local
  172.16.0.0/12       ! RFC 1918 private
  192.0.2.0/24        ! TEST-NET
  192.168.0/16        ! RFC 1918 private
  224.0.0.0/4         ! class D multicast
  240.0.0.0/5         ! class E reserved
  248.0.0.0/5         ! reserved
  255.255.255.255/32  ! broadcast

ARIN administrated blocks: (http://www.arin.net/regserv/IPStats.html)
   24.0.0.0/8 (portions of)
   63.0.0.0/8
   64.0.0.0/8
   65.0.0.0/8
   66.0.0.0/8
  196.0.0.0/8
  198.0.0.0/8
  199.0.0.0/8
  200.0.0.0/8
  204.0.0.0/8
  205.0.0.0/8
  206.0.0.0/8
  207.0.0.0/8
  208.0.0.0/8
  209.0.0.0/8
  216.0.0.0/8
----------------------------------------------------------

well known ports: (rfc1700.txt)
 www.iana.org/assignments/port-numbers

protocol numbers:
 www.iana.org/assignments/protocol-numbers
 www.iana.org/numbers.htm

ICMP(Types/Codes)
 Testing Destination Reachability & Status
  (0/0)  Echo-Reply
  (8/0)  Echo
 Unreachable Destinations
  (3/0)  Network Unreachable
  (3/1)  Host Unreachable
  (3/2)  Protocol Unreachable
  (3/3)  Port Unreachable
  (3/4)  Fragmentaion Needed and DF set (Pkt too big)
  (3/5)  Source Route Failed
  (3/6)  Network Unknown
  (3/7)  Host Unknown
  (3/9)  DOD Net Prohibited
  (3/10) DOD Host Prohibited
  (3/11) Net TOS Unreachable
  (3/12) Host TOS Unreachable
  (3/13) Administratively Prohibited
  (3/14) Host Precedence Unreachable
  (3/15) Precedence Unreachable
 Flow Control
  (4/0)  Source-Quench [RFC 1016]
 Route Change Requests from Gateways
  (5/0)  Redirect Datagrams for the Net
  (5/1)  Redirect Datagrams for the Host
  (5/2)  Redirect Datagrams for the TOS and Net
  (5/3)  Redirect Datagrams for the TOS and Host
 Router
  (6/-)  Alternate-Address
  (9/0)  Router-Advertisement
  (10/0) Router-Solicitation
 Detecting Circular or Excessively Long Routes
  (11/0) Time to Live Count Exceeded
  (11/1) Fragment Reassembly Time Exceeded
 Reporting Incorrect Datagram Headers
  (12/0) Parameter-Problem
  (12/1) Option Missing
  (12/2) No Room for Option
 Clock Synchronization and Transit Time Estimation
  (13/0) Timestamp-Request
  (14/0) Timestamp-Reply
 Obtaining a Network Address (RARP Alternative)
  (15/0) Information-Request
  (16/0) Information-Reply
 Obtaining a Subnet Mask [RFC 950]
  (17/0) Address Mask-Request
  (18/0) Address Mask-Reply
 Other
  (30/0) Traceroute
  (31/0) Conversion-Error
  (32/0) Mobile-Redirect

Ref: [RFC 792] [RFC 896] [RFC 950] [RFC 1016]
  www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/lan/cat6000/sw_5_3/cofigide/qos.htm#19774



Decimal system Prefix's
              Factor               Exponent  Prefix
---------------------------------------------------
 1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000...10^24....yotta
     1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000...10^21....zetta
         1 000 000 000 000 000 000...10^18....exa
             1 000 000 000 000 000...10^15....peta
                 1 000 000 000 000...10^12....tera
                     1 000 000 000...10^9.....giga
                         1 000 000...10^6.....mega
                             1 000...10^3.....kilo
                               100...10^2.....hecto
                                10...10^1.....deka
                               0.1...10^-1....deci
                              0.01...10^-2....centi
                             0.001...10^-3....milli
                         0.000 001...10^-6....micro
                     0.000 000 001...10^-9....nano
                 0.000 000 000 001...10^-12...pico
             0.000 000 000 000 001...10^-15...femto
         0.000 000 000 000 000 001...10^-18...atto
     0.000 000 000 000 000 000 001...10^-21...zepto
 0.000 000 000 000 000 000 000 001...10^-24...yocto
---------------------------------------------------

Convert Fahrenheit <> Celsius:
 Celsius = (Fahrenheit - 32) / 1.8
 Fahrenheit = (Celsius * 1.8) + 32

 

Categories: Réseau Tags: ,