Articles taggués ‘Ubuntu’

Best way to backup all settings, list of installed packages, tweaks, etc?

28/06/2020 Aucun commentaire



A quick way of backing up a list of programs is to run this:

dpkg --get-selections > ~/Package.list
sudo cp /etc/apt/sources.list ~/sources.list
sudo apt-key exportall > ~/Repo.keys


It will back them up in a format that dpkg can read for after your reinstall, like this:

sudo apt-key add ~/Repo.keys
sudo cp ~/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list 
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install dselect
sudo dpkg --set-selections < ~/Package.list
sudo apt-get dselect-upgrade -y


Settings and Personal Data


Before you reinstall, you should probably back up the settings from some of your programs, this can easily be done by grabbing folders from /etc and all the content from your user directory (not just the stuff you can see in nautilus!):

rsync --progress /home/`whoami` /path/to/user/profile/backup/here


After you reinstall, you can restore it with:

rsync --progress /path/to/user/profile/backup/here /home/`whoami`


So all together as a pseudo-bash script.


This assumes there is only one user on the machine (remove /'whoami' otherwise) and that you used the same username on both installs (modify dest. of rsync otherwise).

dpkg --get-selections > ~/Package.list
sudo cp /etc/apt/sources.list ~/sources.list
sudo apt-key exportall > ~/Repo.keys
rsync --progress /home/`whoami` /path/to/user/profile/backup/here

##  Reinstall now

rsync --progress /path/to/user/profile/backup/here /home/`whoami`
sudo apt-key add ~/Repo.keys
sudo cp ~/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list 
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install dselect
sudo dpkg --set-selections < ~/Package.list
sudo dselect


Fixing Apache after Ubuntu 13.10 upgrade

28/06/2020 Aucun commentaire

Ubuntu 13.10 was released yesterday. As well as other package updates, it includes an upgrade from Apache 2.2 to 2.4, which broke a few things on my dev machine.

After the upgrade I was getting the standard “It works!” Apache message on all of my virtual hosts. Running apache2ctl configtest gave me the familiar warning:

Could not reliably determine the server’s fully qualified domain name, using Set the ‘ServerName’ directive globally to suppress this message

You often get this error in an out-of-the-box Ubuntu setup as you need to tell Apache what hostname to use as the default. I’d previously fixed this by creating a config file at /etc/apache2/conf.d/fqdn that contains only:

ServerName localhost

so first I had to investigate why this was no longer working. It turned that Apache 2.4 no longer reads configs from conf.d. If you check the end of apache2.conf, you’ll see that it now looks in a folder called conf-enabled instead:

# Include generic snippets of statements
IncludeOptional conf-enabled/*.conf

This folder contains symlinked files pointing at conf-available, making the conf setup similar to the approach used for vhosts. So, to fix the error I moved all of my configuration files from conf.d to /etc/apache2/conf-available/, added a .conf file extension to each one, and then ran:

a2enconf fqdn

to setup the symlink.

After restarting Apache, the FQDN error was gone, but I was still getting the “It works!” message for all my vhosts. I had another look at the main Apache config and found:

# Include the virtual host configurations:
IncludeOptional sites-enabled/*.conf

So by default Apache expects the vhost files to have a .conf file extension (which it didn’t before). Mine just used the hostname as the filename. So I renamed each of these and updated the symlinks that point to them.

After that everything was back to normal.

A full 2.2 to 2.4 upgrade guide is available in case you have any other issues. Of particular note is the change to the syntax for ‘Deny from’ and ‘Require’, so if you start getting “403 Forbidden” errors on things that previously worked you’ll probably need to update those directives.

Many/all of these issues could be mitigaged by either keeping old configs during the upgrade or by installing the provided compatibility module, but in development I prefer to always install package maintainer’s configs when upgrading so that I know how to fix things if they were to go wrong in production.

Categories: Logiciel, Système Tags: , ,

Linux Command: Show Linux Version

21/06/2020 Comments off

Source: nixCraft

What command I need to type to display Linux kernel version and other information such as Linux distribution name? How do I check Linux kernel version number?

You need to use the following two commands:

[a] uname - Print kernel and system information.
[b] lsb_release - Print distribution-specific information.
[c] /proc/version file - Print running kernel information.

How to check linux kernel version number?

Open a shell prompt (or a terminal) and type the following command to see your current Linux kernel version:

$ uname -r

Sample outputs:


Or type the following command:

$ uname -mrs

Sample outputs:

Linux 2.6.32-23-generic-pae i686

To print all information, enter:

$ uname -a

Sample outputs:

Linux vivek-laptop 2.6.32-23-generic-pae #37-Ubuntu SMP Fri Jun 11 09:26:55 UTC 2010 i686 GNU/Linux


  • 2.6.32-23 – Linux kernel version number
  • pae – pae kernel type indicate that I’m accssing more than 4GB ram using 32 bit kernel.
  • SMP – Kernel that supports multi core and multiple cpus.

Lire la suite…

Categories: Système Tags: , , ,

Thunderbird/Change account order

21/06/2020 Comments off

To change the order of the accounts in Thunderbird simply edit

~/.thunderbird/<your profile>/prefs.js in GNU/Linux,
C:\Documents and Settings\<your profile>\Application Data\Thunderbird\Profiles\****.default\prefs.js in Microsoft Windows XP,

Lire la suite…

Categories: Logiciel Tags: , ,

Afficher une image dans un terminal

17/06/2020 Comments off


Si vous cherchez un utilitaire et une bibliothèque pour vos projets qui permette d’afficher dans un terminal une image en utilisant du code ANSI, j’ai ce qu’il vous faut. Ça s’appelle Picture- et pour l’ c’est très simple. Il vous faudra npm, donc sous pour un petit npm, il faut taper :

sudo apt-get install npm

Ensuite pour installer la bibliothèque Picture-tube, il faut faire :

sudo npm install picture-tube

Si seul l’outil en vous intéresse, ajoutez le paramètre -g

sudo npm install -g picture-tube

Ensuite, pour convertir une image, un petit

picture-tube monimage.jpg

dans le terminal et taaadaaa



Après, pour utiliser la bibliothèque, voici un exemple de code :

var pictureTube = require('picture-tube')
var tube = pictureTube();
var fs = require('fs');

Pour tout le reste, c’est par ici.

Categories: Logiciel Tags: , ,