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Articles taggués ‘MySQL’

MySQL Query Profiling

30/07/2021 Aucun commentaire

You can profile a query by doing following:

mysql> SET SESSION profiling = 1;
mysql> USE database_name;
mysql> SELECT * FROM table WHERE column = 'value';
mysql> SHOW PROFILES;

First line enables profiling for current mysql interactive session only. Global profiling is not recommended.

Second line selects database on which we need to fire query.

Third line is actual query. (do not use EXPLAIN here).

Fourth line shows list of recorded profiles. It’s output looks like:


mysql> SHOW PROFILES;
+----------+------------+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Query_ID | Duration   | Query                                                                                                                             |
+----------+------------+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|        1 | 0.00008050 | SELECT DATABASE()                                                                                                                 |
|        2 | 0.00034975 | show databases                                                                                                                    |
|        3 | 0.00073850 | show tables                                                                                                                       |
|        4 | 0.00040525 | SELECT * From wp_terms wt INNER JOIN wp_term_taxonomy wtt ON wt.term_id=wtt.term_id WHERE wtt.taxonomy='post_tag' AND wtt.count=0 |
+----------+------------+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)

Above is list of queries profiled in current session.

You can get execution time breakdown by running another mysql query:

SELECT * FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.PROFILING WHERE QUERY_ID=4;

It will print data like:


mysql> SELECT * FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.PROFILING WHERE QUERY_ID=4;
+----------+-----+--------------------------------+----------+----------+------------+-------------------+---------------------+--------------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+-------------------+-------------------+-------+-----------------------+---------------+-------------+
| QUERY_ID | SEQ | STATE                          | DURATION | CPU_USER | CPU_SYSTEM | CONTEXT_VOLUNTARY | CONTEXT_INVOLUNTARY | BLOCK_OPS_IN | BLOCK_OPS_OUT | MESSAGES_SENT | MESSAGES_RECEIVED | PAGE_FAULTS_MAJOR | PAGE_FAULTS_MINOR | SWAPS | SOURCE_FUNCTION       | SOURCE_FILE   | SOURCE_LINE |
+----------+-----+--------------------------------+----------+----------+------------+-------------------+---------------------+--------------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+-------------------+-------------------+-------+-----------------------+---------------+-------------+
|        4 |   2 | starting                       | 0.000014 |     NULL |       NULL |              NULL |                NULL |         NULL |          NULL |          NULL |              NULL |              NULL |              NULL |  NULL | NULL                  | NULL          |        NULL |
|        4 |   3 | Waiting for query cache lock   | 0.000002 |     NULL |       NULL |              NULL |                NULL |         NULL |          NULL |          NULL |              NULL |              NULL |              NULL |  NULL | try_lock              | sql_cache.cc  |         646 |
|        4 |   4 | Waiting on query cache mutex   | 0.000001 |     NULL |       NULL |              NULL |                NULL |         NULL |          NULL |          NULL |              NULL |              NULL |              NULL |  NULL | try_lock              | sql_cache.cc  |         650 |
|        4 |   5 | checking query cache for query | 0.000057 |     NULL |       NULL |              NULL |                NULL |         NULL |          NULL |          NULL |              NULL |              NULL |              NULL |  NULL | send_result_to_client | sql_cache.cc  |        1853 |
|        4 |   6 | checking permissions           | 0.000003 |     NULL |       NULL |              NULL |                NULL |         NULL |          NULL |          NULL |              NULL |              NULL |              NULL |  NULL | check_access          | sql_parse.cc  |        5007 |
|        4 |   7 | checking permissions           | 0.000004 |     NULL |       NULL |              NULL |                NULL |         NULL |          NULL |          NULL |              NULL |              NULL |              NULL |  NULL | check_access          | sql_parse.cc  |        5007 |
|        4 |   8 | Opening tables                 | 0.000046 |     NULL |       NULL |              NULL |                NULL |         NULL |          NULL |          NULL |              NULL |              NULL |              NULL |  NULL | open_tables           | sql_base.cc   |        4944 |
|        4 |   9 | System lock                    | 0.000009 |     NULL |       NULL |              NULL |                NULL |         NULL |          NULL |          NULL |              NULL |              NULL |              NULL |  NULL | mysql_lock_tables     | lock.cc       |         299 |
|        4 |  10 | Waiting for query cache lock   | 0.000001 |     NULL |       NULL |              NULL |                NULL |         NULL |          NULL |          NULL |              NULL |              NULL |              NULL |  NULL | try_lock              | sql_cache.cc  |         646 |
|        4 |  11 | Waiting on query cache mutex   | 0.000021 |     NULL |       NULL |              NULL |                NULL |         NULL |          NULL |          NULL |              NULL |              NULL |              NULL |  NULL | try_lock              | sql_cache.cc  |         650 |
|        4 |  12 | init                           | 0.000032 |     NULL |       NULL |              NULL |                NULL |         NULL |          NULL |          NULL |              NULL |              NULL |              NULL |  NULL | mysql_select          | sql_select.cc |        2622 |
|        4 |  13 | optimizing                     | 0.000015 |     NULL |       NULL |              NULL |                NULL |         NULL |          NULL |          NULL |              NULL |              NULL |              NULL |  NULL | optimize              | sql_select.cc |         889 |
|        4 |  14 | statistics                     | 0.000057 |     NULL |       NULL |              NULL |                NULL |         NULL |          NULL |          NULL |              NULL |              NULL |              NULL |  NULL | optimize              | sql_select.cc |        1099 |
|        4 |  15 | preparing                      | 0.000017 |     NULL |       NULL |              NULL |                NULL |         NULL |          NULL |          NULL |              NULL |              NULL |              NULL |  NULL | optimize              | sql_select.cc |        1121 |
|        4 |  16 | executing                      | 0.000002 |     NULL |       NULL |              NULL |                NULL |         NULL |          NULL |          NULL |              NULL |              NULL |              NULL |  NULL | exec                  | sql_select.cc |        1879 |
|        4 |  17 | Sending data                   | 0.000099 |     NULL |       NULL |              NULL |                NULL |         NULL |          NULL |          NULL |              NULL |              NULL |              NULL |  NULL | exec                  | sql_select.cc |        2423 |
|        4 |  18 | end                            | 0.000003 |     NULL |       NULL |              NULL |                NULL |         NULL |          NULL |          NULL |              NULL |              NULL |              NULL |  NULL | mysql_select          | sql_select.cc |        2658 |
|        4 |  19 | query end                      | 0.000003 |     NULL |       NULL |              NULL |                NULL |         NULL |          NULL |          NULL |              NULL |              NULL |              NULL |  NULL | mysql_execute_command | sql_parse.cc  |        4686 |
|        4 |  20 | closing tables                 | 0.000007 |     NULL |       NULL |              NULL |                NULL |         NULL |          NULL |          NULL |              NULL |              NULL |              NULL |  NULL | mysql_execute_command | sql_parse.cc  |        4738 |
|        4 |  21 | freeing items                  | 0.000011 |     NULL |       NULL |              NULL |                NULL |         NULL |          NULL |          NULL |              NULL |              NULL |              NULL |  NULL | mysql_parse           | sql_parse.cc  |        5931 |
|        4 |  22 | logging slow query             | 0.000001 |     NULL |       NULL |              NULL |                NULL |         NULL |          NULL |          NULL |              NULL |              NULL |              NULL |  NULL | log_slow_statement    | sql_parse.cc  |        1625 |
|        4 |  23 | cleaning up                    | 0.000002 |     NULL |       NULL |              NULL |                NULL |         NULL |          NULL |          NULL |              NULL |              NULL |              NULL |  NULL | dispatch_command      | sql_parse.cc  |        1475 |
+----------+-----+--------------------------------+----------+----------+------------+-------------------+---------------------+--------------+---------------+---------------+-------------------+-------------------+-------------------+-------+-----------------------+---------------+-------------+
22 rows in set (0.00 sec)

Source: rtcamp.com

How To Use MySQL Query Profiling

29/07/2021 Aucun commentaire

Introduction

MySQL query profiling is a useful technique when trying to analyze the overall performance of a database driven application. When developing a mid to large size application, there tends to be hundreds of queries distributed throughout a large code base and potentially numerous queries ran against the database per second. Without some sort of query profiling techniques, it becomes very difficult to determine locations and causes of bottlenecks and applications slow down. This article will demonstrate some useful query profiling techniques using tools that are built into MySQL server.

 

What is the MySQL slow query log?

The MySQL slow query log is a log that MySQL sends slow, potentially problematic queries to. This logging functionality comes with MySQL but is turned off by default. What queries are logged is determined by customizable server variables that allow for query profiling based on an application’s performance requirements. Generally the queries that are logged are queries that take longer than a specified amount of time to execute or queries that do not properly hit indexes.

 

Setting up profiling variables

The primary server variables for setting up the MySQL slow query log are:

slow_query_log			G 
slow_query_log_file			G 
long_query_time			G / S
log_queries_not_using_indexes	G
min_examined_row_limit		G / S

NOTE: (G) global variable, (S) session variable

slow_query_log – Boolean for turning the slow query log on and off.

slow_query_log_file – The absolute path for the query log file. The file’s directory should be owned by the mysqld user and have the correct permissions to be read from and written to. The mysql daemon will likely be running as `mysql` but to verify run the following in the Linux terminal:

 ps -ef | grep bin/mysqld | cut -d' ' -f1

The output will likely display the current user as well as the mysqld user. An example of setting the directory path /var/log/mysql:

cd /var/log
mkdir mysql
chmod 755 mysql
chown mysql:mysql mysql

long_query_time – The time, in seconds, for checking query length. For a value of 5, any query taking longer than 5s to execute would be logged.

log_queries_not_using_indexes – Boolean value whether to log queries that are not hitting indexes. When doing query analysis, it is important to log queries that are not hitting indexes.

min_examined_row_limit – Sets a lower limit on how many rows should be examined. A value of 1000 would ignore any query that analyzes less than 1000 rows.

The MySQL server variables can be set in the MySQL conf file or dynamically via a MySQL GUI or MySQL command line. If the variables are set in the conf file, they will be persisted when the server restarts but will also require a server restart to become active. The MySQL conf file is usually located in `/etc or /usr`, typically `/etc/my.cnf` or `/etc/mysql/my.cnf`. To find the conf file (may have to broaden search to more root directories):

find /etc -name my.cnf
find /usr -name my.cnf

Once the conf file has been found, simply append the desired values under the [mysqld] heading:

[mysqld]
….
slow-query-log = 1
slow-query-log-file = /var/log/mysql/localhost-slow.log
long_query_time = 1
log-queries-not-using-indexes

Again, the changes will not take affect until after a server restart, so if the changes are needed immediately then set the variables dynamically:

mysql> SET GLOBAL slow_query_log = 'ON';
mysql> SET GLOBAL slow_query_log_file = '/var/log/mysql/localhost-slow.log';
mysql> SET GLOBAL log_queries_not_using_indexes = 'ON';
mysql> SET SESSION long_query_time = 1;
mysql> SET SESSION min_examined_row_limit = 100;

To check the variable values:

mysql> SHOW GLOBAL VARIABLES LIKE 'slow_query_log';
mysql> SHOW SESSION VARIABLES LIKE 'long_query_time';

One drawback to setting MySQL variables dynamically is that the variables will be lost upon server restart. It is advisable to add any important variables that you need to be persisted to the MySQL conf file.

NOTE: The syntax for setting variables dynamically via SET and placing them into the conf file are slightly different, e.g. `slow_query_log` vs. `slow-query-log`. View MySQL’s dynamic system variables page for the different syntaxes. The Option-File Format is the format for the conf file and System Variable Name is the variable name for setting the variables dynamically.

Lire la suite…

Using MySQLTuner to Optimize MySQL

29/07/2021 Aucun commentaire

Tweaking MySQL is something you need to do regularly. Unlike PHP & Nginx tweaking, this is not a set & forget job!

We will use mysqltuner for tweaking mysql on a regular basis.

Tweaking MySQL default config first

Open /etc/mysql/my.cnf file & scroll down to [mysqld] section.

You will see many settings & some config variables. Some values are global while some are per-thread values. Its important because if you change something likejoin_buffer_size from 2M to 4M, it can shoot-up mysql’s max memory utilization by 300M memory (as per default 150 mysql’s max_connections value)

To start with, adjust following values:

max_connections = 50     #default is 150
wait_timeout = 30        #default is 28800

You can leave remaining as it is. Mysqltuner will guide you further.

Don’t forget to restart mysql. Command: service mysql restart

Using mysqltuner

If you are following our setup, you may already have mysqltuner installed. Otherwise run apt-get install mysqltuner on Ubuntu. Non-ubuntu guys can get it from here. It’s just a perl script!

When you run mysqltuner, it will show you a report with many suggestions. Just follow them. Exact suggestion will vary so its hard to cover all of them here. Rather I will give you some notes some of them are offered by mysqltuner itself.

Notes:

  1. Run mysqltuner after 24 hours. It you don’t, it will remind you by showing “MySQL started within last 24 hours – recommendations may be inaccurate.” Reason: mysqltuner recommendation may prove inaccurate.
  2. If it asks you to change value oftmp_table_size ormax_heap_table_size variable, make sure you change both and keep them equal. These are global values so feel free to increase them by large chunks (provided you have enough memory on server)
  3. If it asks you to tweak join_buffer_size, tweak in small chunks as it will be multiplied by value ofmax_connections.
  4. If it asks you to increase innodb_buffer_pool_size, make it large. Ideally, it should be large enough to accomodate your all innodb databases. If you do not have enough RAM consider buying some. Otherwise try to delete unwanted database. Do not ignore this as it can degrade performance significantly.

Apart from above, always keep an eye on following lines in Performance Metrics section of mysqltuner report:

[--] Total buffers: 2.6G global + 130.6M per thread (100 max threads)
[OK] Maximum possible memory usage: 15.3G (48% of installed RAM)
[OK] Highest usage of available connections: 81% (81/100)

Try to keep maximum possible memory less than 50%. Other lines can tell you, if your site is using too “less” mysql connections. In that case, you can reducemax_connections and increase other buffers more generously.

Also, whenever you make changes to mysql config and restart mysql server, always run mysqltuner immediately to check if by mistake you haven’t made maximum possible memory usage too high! Ignore any other suggestion it will give for next 24-hours!

mysqltuner & automatic password

As we use mysqltuner many times, it will be convenient use something like this.

Source: rtcamp.com

How To Optimize WordPress Performance With MySQL Replication On Ubuntu 14.04

13/07/2021 Comments off

Introduction

In this tutorial, we will teach you how to scale up your WordPress MySQL database server setup using master-slave database replication and the HyperDB plugin for WordPress. Adding more database servers to your environment in this manner allows your WordPress application to read from multiple database servers, increasing read performance.

MySQL replication reaps the most performance benefits for a system that processes frequent reads and infrequent writes, like most WordPress installations. By using a single-master with multiple-slave setup, you can add more slaves to scale your system, until you run out of network bandwidth or your master cannot handle the update load. If you wish, you can add more than one slaves by repeating the “slave” portions of the replication sections of this tutorial.

We are assuming that your setup includes two load balanced WordPress application servers that connect to a separate MySQL database server (see the prerequisites for a tutorial on how to set that up). It is not strictly necessary to have load balanced application servers to follow this tutorial, but your MySQL database server should be separate from your application servers.

Prerequisites

Before continuing with this tutorial, you should have completed two tutorials or have a similar environment:

After following those tutorials, to set up WordPress with two load balanced web application servers and a separate database server, you should have four VPSs. Because we will be dealing with several VPSs, for reference purposes, we will call your four existing VPSs the following:

  • haproxy-www: Your HAProxy server for layer 4 load balancing your WordPress web application servers. This is the entry point into your website
  • wordpress-1: Your first WordPress web application server
  • wordpress-2: Your second WordPress web application server
  • mysql-1: Your MySQL server for WordPress

That is, your environment should look something like this:

WordPress and Separate MySQL Database Server

In addition to your current environment, we will require one additional VPS during this tutorial. We will call it:

  • mysql-2: Your slave MySQL database server

Lire la suite…

How to log in to MySQL server without password

06/07/2021 Comments off

mysql without passwordIn order to log in to a MySQL server, you can run mysql command along with your login credentials and server’s IP address as arguments. For example:

$ mysql -u $MYSQL_ROOT -p $MYSQL_PASS -h 192.168.10.1

However, besides the inconvenience of typing extra arguments, using plain-text login credentials in a command line like above is really not a secure way to access a MySQL server. In a multi-user Linux environment, what you type in command line can easily be revealed to others who happen to run ps on the same host at the same time.

MySQL offers a way for you to log in to MySQL server without password, by using an external MySQL configuration file. In Linux, there are two different kinds of MySQL configuration files: (1) /etc/my.cnf and (2) ~/.my.conf. While any system-wide MySQL configuration is defined in /etc/my.cnf, any user-specific MySQL configuration is stored in ~/.my.cnf. You can leverage ~/.my.cnf, to define your MySQL login credential in the file.

$ vi ~/.my.cnf
[client]
user=alice
password=alice_passwd
host=192.168.10.1

Make sure to have the configuration file readable to you only.

$ chmod 0600 ~/.my.cnf

Once ~/.my.cnf is created, simply typing mysql command will let you log in to 192.168.10.1 as alice, and you no longer need to provide login password separately.

Source: Xmodulo