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Articles taggués ‘bash’

Alertes par SMS en Bash (via Google Calendar)

08/09/2022 Comments off

La remontée d’alerte par SMS (“Short Message Service”) est un plus non négligeable dans le monitoring de systèmes d’informations critiques.

Les services gratuits permettant d’utiliser les SMS depuis le système restent rare.

Depuis plusieurs années déjà, “Google Agenda” propose à ses clients des rappels de rendez-vous par SMS.
Rapidement, ce service Google fût détourné pour être utilisé comme source de remontée d’alertes (exemple : “SmsAlert : Envoyer des SMS gratuitement depuis ses serveurs” sur le site Macsim’s Mind qui utilisait le script PHP d’ Alexander Skakunov pour remonter des alertes par SMS).

Bien que très efficaces, la plupart de ces détournement sont implémentés en PHP qui n’est pas installé sur tous les serveurs.

L’idée de cet article et d’utiliser la même technique mais implémentée en BASH.

Principe de fonctionnement

Le principe est de créer un événement dans un agenda Google Calendar débutant dans 5 minutes et X secondes et d’avertir l’administrateur par SMS 5 minutes avant le début de l’événement. Le SMS sera donc envoyé après X secondes.

L’objectif du script “googalert” (disponible sur sourceforge) est de n’utiliser que des commandes classiques du shell, de pouvoir choisir l’agenda dans lesquels seront stockés les alertes et d’être parfaitement conforme à l’API Google(http://www.udel.edu/CIS/software/dist/google/calendar/java.client/gdata/doc/calendar.htmlvoir Add an event).

Lire la suite…

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Read a Specific Line From a File in Linux

08/09/2022 Comments off

1. Overview

Reading text files is a common operation when we work with the Linux command-line. Sometimes, we know the line X in a file contains interesting data, and we want to just read line X.

In this quick tutorial, we’ll have a look at different approaches to read a specific line from a file.

2. Introduction to the Problem

The problem is pretty straightforward. Let’s get a more clear picture through an example.

For instance, we have a file called input.txt:

$ nl input.txt 
     1	I am line 1, I don't have any interesting data.
     2	I am line 2, I don't have any interesting data.
     3	I am line 3, I don't have any interesting data.
     4	I am line 4, I don't have any interesting data.
     5	I am line 5, interesting data: Linux is awesome!
     6	I am line 6, I don't have any interesting data.
     7	I am line 7, I don't have any interesting data.

As the output above shows, we’ve used the nl command to print the file’s content with line numbers.

We know that the input.txt file contains some interesting information in the fifth line. Therefore, we want to read line five only.

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30 Handy Bash Shell Aliases For Linux / Unix / Mac OS X

27/08/2022 Comments off

An alias is nothing but the shortcut to commands. The alias command allows the user to launch any command or group of commands (including options and filenames) by entering a single word. Use alias command to display a list of all defined aliases. You can add user-defined aliases to ~/.bashrcfile. You can cut down typing time with these aliases, work smartly, and increase productivity at the command prompt.

More about aliases

The general syntax for the alias command for the bash shell is as follows:

Task: List aliases

Type the following command:

alias

Sample outputs:

alias ..='cd ..'
alias amazonbackup='s3backup'
alias apt-get='sudo apt-get'
...

By default alias command shows a list of aliases that are defined for the current user.

Lire la suite…

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How to check the file size in Linux/Unix bash shell scripting

26/08/2022 Comments off

 

How to check file size in unix using wc command

The wc command shows the number of lines, words, and bytes contained in file. The syntax is as follows to get the file size:
wc -c /path/to/file
wc -c /etc/passwd

Sample outputs:

5253 /etc/passwd

You can easily extract the first field either using the cut or awk command:
wc -c /etc/passwd | awk '{print $1}'
Sample outputs:

5253

OR assign this size to a bash variable:

myfilesize=$(wc -c "/etc/passwd" | awk '{print $1}')
printf "%d\n" $myfilesize
echo "$myfilesize"

How to get the size of a file in a bash script using stat command

The stat command shows information about the file. The syntax is as follows to get the file size on GNU/Linux stat:
stat -c %s "/etc/passwd"
OR
stat --format=%s "/etc/passwd"
To assign this size to a bash variable:

myfilesize=$(stat --format=%s "/etc/passwd")
echo "$myfilesize"
## or ##
myFileSizeCheck=$(stat -c %s "/etc/resolv.conf")
printf "My file size = %d\n" $myFileSizeCheck

The syntax is as follows to get the file size on BSD/MacOS stat:
stat -f %z "/etc/passwd"
Please note that if the file is symlink you will get size of that link only with the stat command.

du command example

The syntax is

du --apparent-size --block-size=1  "/etc/passwd"
fileName="/etc/hosts"
mfs=$(du --apparent-size --block-size=1  "$fileName" | awk '{ print $1}')
echo "$fileName size = ${mfs}"

Sample outputs from above commands:

Fig.01: How to check size of a file using a bash/ksh/zsh/sh/tcsh shell?Fig.01: How to check size of a file using a bash/ksh/zsh/sh/tcsh shell?

 

Find command example

The syntax is:

find "/etc/passwd" -printf "%s"
find "/etc/passwd" -printf "%s\n"
fileName="/etc/hosts"
mysize=$(find "$fileName" -printf "%s")
printf "File %s size = %d\n" $fileName $mysize
echo "${fileName} size is ${mysize} bytes."
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How to get domain name from URL in bash shell script

26/08/2022 Comments off
How can I extract or fetch a domain name from a URL string (e.g. https://www.cyberciti.biz/index.php) using bash shell scripting under Linux or Unix-like operating system?

You can use standard Unix commands such as sed, awk, grep, Perl, Python and more to get domain name from URL. No need to write regex. It is pretty simple.

Let use see various commands and option to grab the domain part from given variable under Linux or Unix-like system.

Get domain name from full URL

Say your url name is stored in a bash shell variable such as $x:
x='https://www.dbsysnet.com/'
You can use the awk as follows:
echo "$x" | awk -F/ '{print $3}'
### OR ###
awk -F/ '{print $3}' <<<$x

Sample outputs:

www.dbsysnet.com

Extract domain name from URL using sed

Here is a sample sed command:
url="https://www.dbsysnet.com"
echo "$url" | sed -e 's|^[^/]*//||' -e 's|/.*$||'

Extract domain name from URL using bash shell parameter substitution

Another option is to use bash shell parameter substitution:

# My shell variable 
f="https://www.cyberciti.biz/faq/copy-command/"
 
## Remove protocol part of url ##
f="${f#http://}"
f="${f#https://}"
f="${f#ftp://}"
f="${f#scp://}"
f="${f#scp://}"
f="${f#sftp://}"
 
## Remove username and/or username:password part of URL ##
f="${f#*:*@}"
f="${f#*@}"
 
## Remove rest of urls ##
f=${f%%/*}
 
## Show domain name only ##
echo "$f"

Shell script example

A shell script to purge urls from Cloudflare by matching domain name part:

#!/bin/bash
zone_id=""
api_key=""
 
urls="$@"
bon=$(tput bold)
boff=$(tput sgr0)
c=1
[ "$urls" == "" ] && { echo "Usage: $0 url"; exit 1; }
 
clear
echo "Purging..."
echo
for u in $urls
do
     echo -n "${bon}${c}${boff}.${u}: "
     ## Get domain name ##
     d="$(echo $u | awk -F/ '{ print $3}')"
     ## Set API_KEY, Email_ID, and ZONE_ID as per domain ##
     case $d in
	     www.cyberciti.biz) zone_id="ID_1"; api_key="MY_KEY_1"; email_id="webmaster@cyberciti.biz";;
	     theos.in) zone_id="ID_2"; api_key="MY_KEY_2"; email_id="webmaster@theos.in";;
	     *) echo "Domain not configured."; continue;;
     esac
     ## Do it ##
     curl -X DELETE "https://api.cloudflare.com/client/v4/zones/${zone_id}/purge_cache" \
     -H "X-Auth-Email: ${email_id}" \
     -H "X-Auth-Key: ${api_key}" \
     -H "Content-Type: application/json" \
     --data "{\"files\":[\"${u}\"]}"
     echo
     (( c++ ))
done
echo
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