Articles taggués ‘netfilter’

Linux: 20 Iptables Examples For New SysAdmins

02/04/2024 Comments off


Iptables Examples For New SysAdmins

Linux comes with a host based firewall called Netfilter. According to the official project site:

netfilter is a set of hooks inside the Linux kernel that allows kernel modules to register callback functions with the network stack. A registered callback function is then called back for every packet that traverses the respective hook within the network stack.

This Linux based firewall is controlled by the program called iptables to handles filtering for IPv4, and ip6tables handles filtering for IPv6. I strongly recommend that you first read our quick tutorial that explains how to configure a host-based firewall called Netfilter (iptables) under CentOS / RHEL / Fedora / Redhat Enterprise Linux. This post list most common iptables solutions required by a new Linux user to secure his or her Linux operating system from intruders.



IPTABLES Rules Example

  • Most of the actions listed in this post are written with the assumption that they will be executed by the root user running the bash or any other modern shell. Do not type commands on remote system as it will disconnect your access.
  • For demonstration purpose I’ve used RHEL 6.x, but the following command should work with any modern Linux distro.
  • This is NOT a tutorial on how to set iptables. See tutorial here. It is a quick cheat sheet to common iptables commands.

Lire la suite…

Configurer IPTables pour Netfilter sous Debian Squeeze

11/03/2024 Comments off

Qu’est-ce que c’est?

IPTables regroupe les lignes de commandes nécessaires à la gestion de Netfilter. Oui mais que fait Netfilter ? Pour les anglophones, vous aurez remarquer que dans Netfilter, il y a Net et il y a Filter donc à priori ça va parler d’Internet et de filtrage. Et qui dit filtrage, veut dire Firewall.

Voilà le mot est laché ! Le couple Netfilter/IPTables permet de faire du filtrage de port grâce à des règles de pare-feu. Il sera alors possible de bloquer certains paquets IP et de laisser passer ceux qui nous intéressent. Par exemple par le port 80 (le port pour http), le trafic Internet sera possible et votre navigateur préféré vous emmènera sur les autoroutes du savoir offert par Internet. Lire la suite…

System: fail2ban and iptables

26/02/2024 Comments off


Around the beginning of 2005 we saw an increase in brute-force ssh attacks – people or robots trying different combinations of username and password to log into remote servers. A quick search on this topic returns many references to iptables and ipchains but noone really explained how they work.

Having just gone through this learning curve myself, and found a satisfactory solution in the fail2ban package, I’m going to try and explain how to achieve the simple goal of banning IP addresses that make repeated failed ssh login attempts.

If you want more technical information regarding firewalls and iptables in particular, see the References section at the bottom of this page. Lire la suite…

Rate-limit Incoming Port 22 Connections

17/02/2024 Comments off

Both netfilter and pf provides rate-limit option to perform simple throttling on incoming connections on port # 22.

Iptables Example

The following example will drop incoming connections which make more than 5 connection attempts upon port 22 within 60 seconds:

$IPT -I INPUT -p tcp --dport ${ssh_port} -i ${inet_if} -m state --state NEW -m recent  --set
$IPT -I INPUT -p tcp --dport ${ssh_port} -i ${inet_if} -m state --state NEW -m recent  --update --seconds 60 --hitcount 5 -j DROP

Call above script from your iptables scripts. Another config option:

$IPT -A INPUT  -i ${inet_if} -p tcp --dport ${ssh_port} -m state --state NEW -m limit --limit 3/min --limit-burst 3 -j ACCEPT
$IPT -A INPUT  -i ${inet_if} -p tcp --dport ${ssh_port} -m state --state ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
$IPT -A OUTPUT -o ${inet_if} -p tcp --sport ${ssh_port} -m state --state ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
# another one line example
# $IPT -A INPUT -i ${inet_if} -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED,RELATED -p tcp --dport 22 -m limit --limit 5/minute --limit-burst 5-j ACCEPT

See iptables man page for more details.

*BSD PF Example

The following will limits the maximum number of connections per source to 20 and rate limit the number of connections to 15 in a 5 second span. If anyone breaks our rules add them to our abusive_ips table and block them for making any further connections. Finally, flush keyword kills all states created by the matching rule which originate from the host which exceeds these limits.

table <abusive_ips> persist
block in quick from <abusive_ips>
pass in on $ext_if proto tcp to $sshd_server_ip port ssh flags S/SA keep state (max-src-conn 20, max-src-conn-rate 15/5, overload <abusive_ips> flush)

psad: Linux Detect And Block Port Scan Attacks In Real Time

15/01/2024 Comments off

Source: NixCraft

Q. How do I detect port scan attacks by analyzing Debian Linux firewall log files and block port scans in real time? How do I detect suspicious network traffic under Linux?

A. A port scanner (such as nmap) is a piece of software designed to search a network host for open ports. Cracker can use nmap to scan your network before starting attack. You can always see scan patterns by visiting /var/log/messages. But, I recommend the automated tool called psad – the port scan attack detector under Linux which is a collection of lightweight system daemons that run on Linux machines and analyze iptables log messages to detect port scans and other suspicious traffic.

psad makes use of Netfilter log messages to detect, alert, and (optionally) block port scans and other suspect traffic. For tcp scans psad analyzes tcp flags to determine the scan type (syn, fin, xmas, etc.) and corresponding command line options that could be supplied to nmap to generate such a scan. In addition, psad makes use of many tcp, udp, and icmp signatures contained within the Snort intrusion detection system.

Install psad under Debian / Ubuntu Linux

Type the following command to install psad, enter:
$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install psad

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