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Articles taggués ‘linux’

How to find and delete directory recursively on Linux or Unix-like system

28/09/2017 Comments off

I type ‘find . -type d -iname foo -delete‘ command to find the foo directories and delete them. However, I am getting an error message that read as find: cannot delete './hourly.4/data/foo': Directory not empty on Linux server. How do delete directories based on find command output on Linux or Unix-like system?



The -delete option remove the DIRECTORY(ies), if they are empty. You need to use the -execoption to delete all directories and its contents. The syntax is as follows.

Find command syntax to delete dirs

Try:
find /dir/to/search/ -type d -name "dirName" -exec rm -rf {} +
OR
find /dir/to/search/ -type d -name "dirName" -exec rm -rf \;

Warning: Be careful with the rm command when using with find. You may end up deleting unwanted data.

Find will execute given command when it finds files or dirs. For example:
find . -type d -name "foo" -exec rm -rf {} +
OR
find . -type d -name "bar" -exec rm -rf "{}" \;
Sample outputs:

removed './daily.0/bar/.cache/motd.legal-displayed'
removed directory './daily.0/bar/root/.cache'
removed './daily.0/bar/.lesshst'
removed './daily.0/bar/.viminfo'
removed './daily.0/bar/.vim/.netrwhist'
removed directory './daily.0/bar/root/.vim'
removed './daily.0/bar/root/.bashrc'
removed './daily.0/bar/.ssh/authorized_keys'
removed directory './daily.0/bar/root'
removed directory './daily.0/bar/var/spool/cron/crontabs'

You can find directories that are at least four levels deep in the working directory /backups/:
find /backups/ -type d -name "bar" -depth +4 -print0 -exec rm -rf {} +

Find and xargs

The syntax is as follows to find and delete directories on Linux/Unix system:
## delete all empty dirs ##
find /path/to/dir/ -type d -empty -print0 | xargs -0 -I {} /bin/rm -rf "{}"
## delete all foo dirs including subdirs in /backups/
find /backups/ -type d -name "foo*" -print0 | xargs -0 -I {} /bin/rm -rf "{}"

The second command is secure and fast version as it deals with weird dir names such as:

  • “foo bar”
  • “Foo _ *bar”
 
Categories: Système Tags: , , ,

How to display countdown timer in bash shell script running on Linux/Unix

28/09/2017 Comments off
I want to display a countdown before purging cache from CDN network. Is there an existing command to show a conuntdown from 30..1 as 30,29,28,…1 on Linux or Unix bash shell script?

There are various ways to show a countdown in your shell scripts. 

First define your message:
msg="Purging cache please wait..."
Now clear the screen and display the message at row 10 and column 5 using tput:
clear
tput cup 10 5

Next you need to display the message:
echo -n "$msg"

Find out the length of string:
l=${#msg}
Calculate the next column:
l=$(( l+5 ))
Finally use a bash for loop to show countdown:
for i in {30..01}
do
tput cup 10 $l
echo -n "$i"
sleep 1
done
echo

Here is a complete shell script:

#!/bin/bash
# Purpose: Purge urls from Cloudflare Cache
# Author: Vivek Gite {www.cyberciti.biz} under GPL v2.x+
# --------------------------------------------------------
# Set me first #
zone_id="My-ID"
api_key="My_API_KEY"
email_id="My_EMAIL_ID"
row=2
col=2
urls="$@"
countdown() {
        msg="Purging ${1}..."
        clear
        tput cup $row $col
        echo -n "$msg"
        l=${#msg}
        l=$(( l+$col ))
        for i in {30..1}
        do
                tput cup $row $l
                echo -n "$i"
                sleep 1
        done
}
# Do it
for u in $urls
do
     amp_url="${u}amp/"
     curl -X DELETE "https://api.cloudflare.com/client/v4/zones/${zone_id}/purge_cache" \
     -H "X-Auth-Email: ${email_id}" \
     -H "X-Auth-Key: ${api_key}" \
     -H "Content-Type: application/json" \
     --data "{\"files\":[\"${u}\",\"${amp_url}\"]}" &>/dev/null &&  countdown "$u"
 
done
echo

You can run it as follows:
./script.sh url1 url2

POSIX shell version

From this post:

countdown()
(
  IFS=:
  set -- $*
  secs=$(( ${1#0} * 3600 + ${2#0} * 60 + ${3#0} ))
  while [ $secs -gt 0 ]
  do
    sleep 1 &
    printf "\r%02d:%02d:%02d" $((secs/3600)) $(( (secs/60)%60)) $((secs%60))
    secs=$(( $secs - 1 ))
    wait
  done
  echo
)

It can be run as follows:
countdown "00:00:10" # 10 sec
countdown "00:00:30" # 30 sec
countdown "00:01:42" # 1 min 42 sec

 

Categories: Système Tags: , , ,

Bash scripting Tutorial

28/09/2017 Comments off

Hello World Bash Shell Script

linuxconfig.org:~$ which bash > hello-world.sh                          linuxconfig.org:~$ vi hello-world.sh                                    linuxconfig.org:~$ chmod +x hello-world.sh                              linuxconfig.org:~$ ./hello-world.sh                                     Hello World                                                             linuxconfig.org:~$                                                                                                                                                                                                      
00:00
 

First you need to find out where is your bash interpreter located. Enter the following into your command line:

$ which bash

bash interpreter location: /bin/bash

Open up you favorite text editor and create file called hello_world.sh. Insert the following lines to a file:

NOTE:Every bash shell script in this tutorial starts with shebang: »#! » which is not read as a comment. First line is also a place where you put your interpreter which is in this case: /bin/bash.

Here is our first bash shell script example:

#!/bin/bash
# declare STRING variable
STRING="Hello World"
#print variable on a screen
echo $STRING

Navigate to a directory where your hello_world.sh is located and make the file executable:

$ chmod +x hello_world.sh 

Make bash shell script executable

Now you are ready to execute your first bash script:

./hello_world.sh 

Example of simple bash shell script

Simple Backup bash shell script

#!/bin/bash
tar -czf myhome_directory.tar.gz /home/linuxconfig

Simple Backup bash script

Variables

In this example we declare simple bash variable and print it on the screen ( stdout ) with echo command.

#!/bin/bash
 STRING="HELLO WORLD!!!"
 echo $STRING 

Bash string Variables in bash script

Your backup script and variables:

#!/bin/bash
 OF=myhome_directory_$(date +%Y%m%d).tar.gz
 tar -czf $OF /home/linuxconfig 

Bash backup Script with bash Variables

Global vs. Local variables

#!/bin/bash
#Define bash global variable
#This variable is global and can be used anywhere in this bash script
VAR="global variable"
function bash {
#Define bash local variable
#This variable is local to bash function only
local VAR="local variable"
echo $VAR
}
echo $VAR
bash
# Note the bash global variable did not change
# "local" is bash reserved word
echo $VAR

Global vs. Local Bash variables in bash script

Passing arguments to the bash script

#!/bin/bash
# use predefined variables to access passed arguments
#echo arguments to the shell
echo $1 $2 $3 ' -> echo $1 $2 $3'

# We can also store arguments from bash command line in special array
args=("$@")
#echo arguments to the shell
echo ${args[0]} ${args[1]} ${args[2]} ' -> args=("$@"); echo ${args[0]} ${args[1]} ${args[2]}'

#use $@ to print out all arguments at once
echo $@ ' -> echo $@'

# use $# variable to print out
# number of arguments passed to the bash script
echo Number of arguments passed: $# ' -> echo Number of arguments passed: $#' 
/arguments.sh Bash Scripting Tutorial 

Passing arguments to the bash script

Executing shell commands with bash

#!/bin/bash
# use backticks " ` ` " to execute shell command
echo `uname -o`
# executing bash command without backticks
echo uname -o 

Executing shell commands with bash

Reading User Input

#!/bin/bash
 
echo -e "Hi, please type the word: \c "
read  word
echo "The word you entered is: $word"
echo -e "Can you please enter two words? "
read word1 word2
echo "Here is your input: \"$word1\" \"$word2\""
echo -e "How do you feel about bash scripting? "
# read command now stores a reply into the default build-in variable $REPLY
read
echo "You said $REPLY, I'm glad to hear that! "
echo -e "What are your favorite colours ? "
# -a makes read command to read into an array
read -a colours
echo "My favorite colours are also ${colours[0]}, ${colours[1]} and ${colours[2]}:-)" 

Reading User Input with bash

Bash Trap Command

#!/bin/bash
# bash trap command
trap bashtrap INT
# bash clear screen command
clear;
# bash trap function is executed when CTRL-C is pressed:
# bash prints message => Executing bash trap subrutine !
bashtrap()
{
    echo "CTRL+C Detected !...executing bash trap !"
}
# for loop from 1/10 to 10/10
for a in `seq 1 10`; do
    echo "$a/10 to Exit." 
    sleep 1;
done
echo "Exit Bash Trap Example!!!" 

Arrays

Declare simple bash array

#!/bin/bash
#Declare array with 4 elements
ARRAY=( 'Debian Linux' 'Redhat Linux' Ubuntu Linux )
# get number of elements in the array
ELEMENTS=${#ARRAY[@]}

# echo each element in array 
# for loop
for (( i=0;i<$ELEMENTS;i++)); do
    echo ${ARRAY[${i}]}
done 

Declare simple bash array

Read file into bash array

#!/bin/bash
# Declare array
declare -a ARRAY
# Link filedescriptor 10 with stdin
exec 10<&0
# stdin replaced with a file supplied as a first argument
exec < $1
let count=0

while read LINE; do

    ARRAY[$count]=$LINE
    ((count++))
done

echo Number of elements: ${#ARRAY[@]}
# echo array's content
echo ${ARRAY[@]}
# restore stdin from filedescriptor 10
# and close filedescriptor 10
exec 0<&10 10<&-

Bash script execution with an output:

linuxconfig.org $ cat bash.txt 
Bash
Scripting
Tutorial
Guide
linuxconfig.org $ ./bash-script.sh bash.txt 
Number of elements: 4
Bash Scripting Tutorial Guide
linuxconfig.org $ 

Bash if / else / fi statements

Simple Bash if/else statement

Please note the spacing inside the [ and ] brackets! Without the spaces, it won’t work!

#!/bin/bash
directory="./BashScripting"

# bash check if directory exists
if [ -d $directory ]; then
	echo "Directory exists"
else 
	echo "Directory does not exists"
fi 

Bash if else fi statement

Nested if/else

#!/bin/bash
 
# Declare variable choice and assign value 4
choice=4
# Print to stdout
 echo "1. Bash"
 echo "2. Scripting"
 echo "3. Tutorial"
 echo -n "Please choose a word [1,2 or 3]? "
# Loop while the variable choice is equal 4
# bash while loop
while [ $choice -eq 4 ]; do
 
# read user input
read choice
# bash nested if/else
if [ $choice -eq 1 ] ; then
 
        echo "You have chosen word: Bash"

else                   

        if [ $choice -eq 2 ] ; then
                 echo "You have chosen word: Scripting"
        else
         
                if [ $choice -eq 3 ] ; then
                        echo "You have chosen word: Tutorial"
                else
                        echo "Please make a choice between 1-3 !"
                        echo "1. Bash"
                        echo "2. Scripting"
                        echo "3. Tutorial"
                        echo -n "Please choose a word [1,2 or 3]? "
                        choice=4
                fi   
        fi
fi
done 

Nested Bash if else statement

Bash Comparisons

Arithmetic Comparisons

-lt<
-gt>
-le<=
-ge>=
-eq==
-ne!=
#!/bin/bash
# declare integers
NUM1=2
NUM2=2
if [ $NUM1 -eq $NUM2 ]; then
	echo "Both Values are equal"
else 
	echo "Values are NOT equal"
fi 

Bash Arithmetic Comparisons

#!/bin/bash
# declare integers
NUM1=2
NUM2=1
if [ $NUM1 -eq $NUM2 ]; then
	echo "Both Values are equal"
else 
	echo "Values are NOT equal"
fi 

Bash Arithmetic Comparisons - values are NOT equal

#!/bin/bash
# declare integers
NUM1=2
NUM2=1
if   [ $NUM1 -eq $NUM2 ]; then
	echo "Both Values are equal"
elif [ $NUM1 -gt $NUM2 ]; then
	echo "NUM1 is greater then NUM2"
else 
	echo "NUM2 is greater then NUM1"
fi 

Bash Arithmetic Comparisons - greater then

String Comparisons

=equal
!=not equal
<less then
>greater then
-n s1string s1 is not empty
-z s1string s1 is empty
#!/bin/bash
#Declare string S1
S1="Bash"
#Declare string S2
S2="Scripting"
if [ $S1 = $S2 ]; then
	echo "Both Strings are equal"
else 
	echo "Strings are NOT equal"
fi 

Bash String Comparisons - values are NOT equal

#!/bin/bash
#Declare string S1
S1="Bash"
#Declare string S2
S2="Bash"
if [ $S1 = $S2 ]; then
	echo "Both Strings are equal"
else 
	echo "Strings are NOT equal"
fi 

bash interpreter location: /bin/bash

Bash File Testing

-b filenameBlock special file
-c filenameSpecial character file
-d directorynameCheck for directory existence
-e filenameCheck for file existence
-f filenameCheck for regular file existence not a directory
-G filenameCheck if file exists and is owned by effective group ID.
-g filenametrue if file exists and is set-group-id.
-k filenameSticky bit
-L filenameSymbolic link
-O filenameTrue if file exists and is owned by the effective user id.
-r filenameCheck if file is a readable
-S filenameCheck if file is socket
-s filenameCheck if file is nonzero size
-u filenameCheck if file set-ser-id bit is set
-w filenameCheck if file is writable
-x filenameCheck if file is executable
#!/bin/bash
file="./file"
if [ -e $file ]; then
	echo "File exists"
else 
	echo "File does not exists"
fi 

Bash File Testing - File does not exist Bash File Testing - File exists

Similarly for example we can use while loop to check if file does not exists. This script will sleep until file does exists. Note bash negator « ! » which negates the -e option.

#!/bin/bash
 
while [ ! -e myfile ]; do
# Sleep until file does exists/is created
sleep 1
done 

Loops

Bash for loop

#!/bin/bash

# bash for loop
for f in $( ls /var/ ); do
	echo $f
done 

Running for loop from bash shell command line:

$ for f in $( ls /var/ ); do echo $f; done 

Bash for loop

Bash while loop

#!/bin/bash
COUNT=6
# bash while loop
while [ $COUNT -gt 0 ]; do
	echo Value of count is: $COUNT
	let COUNT=COUNT-1
done 

Bash while loop

Bash until loop

#!/bin/bash
COUNT=0
# bash until loop
until [ $COUNT -gt 5 ]; do
        echo Value of count is: $COUNT
        let COUNT=COUNT+1
done 

Bash until loop

Control bash loop with

Here is a example of while loop controlled by standard input. Until the redirection chain from STDOUT to STDIN to the read command exists the while loop continues.

#!/bin/bash
# This bash script will locate and replace spaces
# in the filenames
DIR="."
# Controlling a loop with bash read command by redirecting STDOUT as
# a STDIN to while loop
# find will not truncate filenames containing spaces
find $DIR -type f | while read file; do
# using POSIX class [:space:] to find space in the filename
if [[ "$file" = *[[:space:]]* ]]; then
# substitute space with "_" character and consequently rename the file
mv "$file" `echo $file | tr ' ' '_'`
fi;
# end of while loop
done 

Bash script to replace spaces in the filenames with _

Bash Functions

!/bin/bash
# BASH FUNCTIONS CAN BE DECLARED IN ANY ORDER
function function_B {
        echo Function B.
}
function function_A {
        echo $1
}
function function_D {
        echo Function D.
}
function function_C {
        echo $1
}
# FUNCTION CALLS
# Pass parameter to function A
function_A "Function A."
function_B
# Pass parameter to function C
function_C "Function C."
function_D 

Bash Functions

Bash Select

#!/bin/bash
 
PS3='Choose one word: ' 

# bash select
select word in "linux" "bash" "scripting" "tutorial" 
do
  echo "The word you have selected is: $word"
# Break, otherwise endless loop
  break  
done

exit 0 

Bash Select

Case statement conditional

#!/bin/bash
echo "What is your preferred programming / scripting language"
echo "1) bash"
echo "2) perl"
echo "3) phyton"
echo "4) c++"
echo "5) I do not know !"
read case;
#simple case bash structure
# note in this case $case is variable and does not have to
# be named case this is just an example
case $case in
    1) echo "You selected bash";;
    2) echo "You selected perl";;
    3) echo "You selected phyton";;
    4) echo "You selected c++";;
    5) exit
esac 

bash case statement conditiona

Bash quotes and quotations

Quotations and quotes are important part of bash and bash scripting. Here are some bash quotes and quotations basics.

Escaping Meta characters

Before we start with quotes and quotations we should know something about escaping meta characters. Escaping will suppress a special meaning of meta characters and therefore meta characters will be read by bash literally. To do this we need to use backslash « \ » character. Example:

#!/bin/bash
 
#Declare bash string variable
BASH_VAR="Bash Script"

# echo variable BASH_VAR
echo $BASH_VAR

#when meta character such us "$" is escaped with "\" it will be read literally
echo $BASH_VAR 

# backslash has also special meaning and it can be suppressed with yet another "\"
echo "\" 

escaping meta characters in bash

Single quotes

Single quotes in bash will suppress special meaning of every meta characters. Therefore meta characters will be read literally. It is not possible to use another single quote within two single quotes not even if the single quote is escaped by backslash.

#!/bin/bash
 
 #Declare bash string variable
 BASH_VAR="Bash Script"
 
 # echo variable BASH_VAR
 echo $BASH_VAR
 
 # meta characters special meaning in bash is suppressed when  using single quotes 
 echo '$BASH_VAR  "$BASH_VAR"' 

Using single quotes in bash

Double Quotes

Double quotes in bash will suppress special meaning of every meta characters except « $ », « \ » and « ` ». Any other meta characters will be read literally. It is also possible to use single quote within double quotes. If we need to use double quotes within double quotes bash can read them literally when escaping them with « \ ». Example:

#!/bin/bash
 
#Declare bash string variable
BASH_VAR="Bash Script"

# echo variable BASH_VAR
echo $BASH_VAR

# meta characters and its special meaning in bash is 
# suppressed when using double quotes except "$", "\" and "`"

echo "It's $BASH_VAR  and \"$BASH_VAR\" using backticks: `date`" 

Using double quotes in bash

Bash quoting with ANSI-C style

There is also another type of quoting and that is ANSI-C. In this type of quoting characters escaped with « \ » will gain special meaning according to the ANSI-C standard.

\aalert (bell)\bbackspace
\ean escape character\fform feed
\nnewline\rcarriage return
\thorizontal tab\vvertical tab
\\backslash\`single quote
\nnnoctal value of characters ( see [http://www.asciitable.com/ ASCII table] )\xnnhexadecimal value of characters ( see [http://www.asciitable.com/ ASCII table] )

The syntax fo ansi-c bash quoting is: $ » . Here is an example:

#!/bin/bash
 
# as a example we have used \n as a new line, \x40 is hex value for @
# and  is octal value for .
echo $'web: www.linuxconfig.org\nemail: web\x40linuxconfigorg' 

quoting in bash with ansi-c stype

Arithmetic Operations

Bash Addition Calculator Example

#!/bin/bash
 
let RESULT1=$1+$2
echo $1+$2=$RESULT1 ' -> # let RESULT1=$1+$2'
declare -i RESULT2
RESULT2=$1+$2
echo $1+$2=$RESULT2 ' -> # declare -i RESULT2; RESULT2=$1+$2'
echo $1+$2=$(($1 + $2)) ' -> # $(($1 + $2))' 

Bash Addition Calculator

Bash Arithmetics

#!/bin/bash
 
echo '### let ###'
# bash addition
let ADDITION=3+5
echo "3 + 5 =" $ADDITION

# bash subtraction
let SUBTRACTION=7-8
echo "7 - 8 =" $SUBTRACTION 

# bash multiplication
let MULTIPLICATION=5*8
echo "5 * 8 =" $MULTIPLICATION

# bash division
let DIVISION=4/2
echo "4 / 2 =" $DIVISION

# bash modulus
let MODULUS=9%4
echo "9 % 4 =" $MODULUS

# bash power of two
let POWEROFTWO=2**2
echo "2 ^ 2 =" $POWEROFTWO


echo '### Bash Arithmetic Expansion ###'
# There are two formats for arithmetic expansion: $[ expression ] 
# and $(( expression #)) its your choice which you use

echo 4 + 5 = $((4 + 5))
echo 7 - 7 = $[ 7 - 7 ]
echo 4 x 6 = $((3 * 2))
echo 6 / 3 = $((6 / 3))
echo 8 % 7 = $((8 % 7))
echo 2 ^ 8 = $[ 2 ** 8 ]


echo '### Declare ###'

echo -e "Please enter two numbers \c"
# read user input
read num1 num2
declare -i result
result=$num1+$num2
echo "Result is:$result "

# bash convert binary number 10001
result=2#10001
echo $result

# bash convert octal number 16
result=8#16
echo $result

# bash convert hex number 0xE6A
result=16#E6A
echo $result 

Bash Arithmetic Operations

Round floating point number

#!/bin/bash
# get floating point number
floating_point_number=3.3446
echo $floating_point_number
# round floating point number with bash
for bash_rounded_number in $(printf %.0f $floating_point_number); do
echo "Rounded number with bash:" $bash_rounded_number
done 

Round floating point number with bash

Bash floating point calculations

#!/bin/bash
# Simple linux bash calculator 
echo "Enter input:" 
read userinput
echo "Result with 2 digits after decimal point:"
echo "scale=2; ${userinput}" | bc 
echo "Result with 10 digits after decimal point:"
echo "scale=10; ${userinput}" | bc 
echo "Result as rounded integer:"
echo $userinput | bc 

Bash floating point calculations

Redirections

STDOUT from bash script to STDERR

#!/bin/bash
 
 echo "Redirect this STDOUT to STDERR" 1>&2 

To prove that STDOUT is redirected to STDERR we can redirect script’s output to file:
STDOUT from bash script to STDERR

STDERR from bash script to STDOUT

#!/bin/bash
 
 cat $1 2>&1 

To prove that STDERR is redirected to STDOUT we can redirect script’s output to file:
STDERR from bash script to STDOUT

stdout to screen

The simple way to redirect a standard output ( stdout ) is to simply use any command, because by default stdout is automatically redirected to screen. First create a file « file1 »:

$ touch file1
$ ls file1 
file1

As you can see from the example above execution of ls command produces STDOUT which by default is redirected to screen.

stdout to file

The override the default behavior of STDOUT we can use « > » to redirect this output to file:

$ ls file1 > STDOUT
$ cat STDOUT 
file1

stderr to file

By default STDERR is displayed on the screen:

$ ls
file1  STDOUT
$ ls file2
ls: cannot access file2: No such file or directory

In the following example we will redirect the standard error ( stderr ) to a file and stdout to a screen as default. Please note that STDOUT is displayed on the screen, however STDERR is redirected to a file called STDERR:

$ ls
file1  STDOUT
$ ls file1 file2 2> STDERR
file1
$ cat STDERR 
ls: cannot access file2: No such file or directory

stdout to stderr

It is also possible to redirect STDOUT and STDERR to the same file. In the next example we will redirect STDOUT to the same descriptor as STDERR. Both STDOUT and STDERR will be redirected to file « STDERR_STDOUT ».

$ ls
file1  STDERR  STDOUT
$ ls file1 file2 2> STDERR_STDOUT 1>&2
$ cat STDERR_STDOUT
ls: cannot access file2: No such file or directory
file1

File STDERR_STDOUT now contains STDOUT and STDERR.

stderr to stdout

The above example can be reversed by redirecting STDERR to the same descriptor as SDTOUT:

$ ls
file1  STDERR  STDOUT
$ ls file1 file2 > STDERR_STDOUT 2>&1
$ cat STDERR_STDOUT 
ls: cannot access file2: No such file or directory
file1

stderr and stdout to file

Previous two examples redirected both STDOUT and STDERR to a file. Another way to achieve the same effect is illustrated below:

$ ls
file1  STDERR  STDOUT
$ ls file1 file2 &> STDERR_STDOUT
$ cat STDERR_STDOUT 
ls: cannot access file2: No such file or directory
file1

or

ls file1 file2 >& STDERR_STDOUT
$ cat STDERR_STDOUT 
ls: cannot access file2: No such file or directory
file1
 
Categories: Système Tags: , , ,

Introduction aux scripts shell

28/09/2017 Comments off

Vous venez d’apprendre à utiliser un éditeur de texte puissant comme Vim. Cela va vous être particulièrement utile pour les chapitres à venir.

Entrons maintenant dans le vif du sujet : la programmation shell. De quoi s’agit-il ?

Imaginez un minilangage de programmation intégré à Linux. Ce n’est pas un langage aussi complet que peuvent l’être le C, le C++ ou le Java par exemple, mais cela permet d’automatiser la plupart de vos tâches : sauvegarde des données, surveillance de la charge de votre machine, etc.

On aurait très bien pu faire tout cela en créant un programme en C par exemple. Le gros avantage du langage shell est d’être totalement intégré à Linux : il n’y a rien à installer, rien à compiler. Et surtout : vous avez très peu de nouvelles choses à apprendre. En effet, toutes les commandes que l’on utilise dans les scripts shell sont des commandes du système que vous connaissez déjà : ls, cut, grep, sort…

On parlera beaucoup de shell dans cette section. De quoi s’agit-il exactement ? Nous répondrons à cette question en premier.
Ensuite, nous réaliserons notre tout premier script shell qui affiche un message à l’écran… et nous pourrons alors passer aux choses sérieuses dès le chapitre suivant !

Qu’est-ce qu’un shell ?

Dès le début, j’ai fait la distinction entre les deux environnements très différents disponibles sous Linux :

  • l’environnement console ;
  • l’environnement graphique.

La plupart du temps, sur sa machine, on a tendance à utiliser l’environnement graphique, qui est plus intuitif. Cependant, la console est aussi un allié très puissant qui permet d’effectuer des actions habituellement difficiles à réaliser dans un environnement graphique.

Je vous avais dit qu’il y avait plusieurs environnements graphiques disponibles (Unity, KDE, XFCE…) mais qu’il n’y avait qu’une seule console. J’ai menti.

Il existe plusieurs environnements console : les shells

La différence est moins tape-à-l’œil que dans le mode graphique (où l’on voit tout de suite que les menus ne sont pas à la même place, par exemple).

La console a toujours un fond noir et un texte blanc, je vous rassure (quoique ça se personnalise, ça). En revanche, les fonctionnalités offertes par l’invite de commandes peuvent varier en fonction du shell que l’on utilise.

Lire la suite…

Categories: Système Tags: , , ,

BASH : Suppression des accents, cédilles, etc

28/09/2017 Comments off

Comment supprimer les accents, cédilles, etc, dans une chaine de caractères ?

Méthode classique : la substitution

La suppression des caractères accentués et autres cédilles peut être effectuée, en Bash, en utilisant « sed » ou « tr » :

fhh@aaricia ~ $ _str="Une chaine avec des é, des Ù, des À, des ç et des œ"
fhh@aaricia ~ $ echo $_str | sed 'y/áàâäçéèêëîïìôöóùúüñÂÀÄÇÉÈÊËÎÏÔÖÙÜÑ/aaaaceeeeiiiooouuunAAACEEEEIIOOUUN/' Une chaine avec des e, des U, des A, des c et des œ

La méthode est fonctionnelle mais sous entend que tous les caractères à substituer aient été définis. Dans l’exemple, le « œ » n’a pas été remplacé car aucun caractère de remplacement ne lui est alloué.

Autre problème de cette méthode, remplacer une lettre par deux autres tel que « œ » par « oe » ou le « ß » allemand par « ss » nécessite la définition de règles particulières à chaque cas.

Ce sont ces raisons qui nous poussent à éviter cette méthode au profit de la conversion de chaines de caractères.

Méthode recommandée : la conversion

Plus complète, la méthode de conversion présente en sus l’avantage d’être plus concise.

« iconv » est utilisé pour « convertir » la chaine de caractères du format de base, UTF-8 dans l’exemple (option « -f » pour « from »), vers le format ASCII (option « -t » pour « to »).

Avec l’option « TRANSLIT », si un caractère ne peut être transcrit dans le format de destination, il est converti en une chaine de caractère équivalente.

fhh@aaricia ~ $ _str="Une chaine avec des é, des Ù, des À, des çÇ et des œ"
fhh@aaricia ~ $ echo $_str | iconv -f utf8 -t ascii//TRANSLIT Une chaine avec des e, des U, des A, des cC et des oe

La méthode fonctionne sur un large panel de caractères :

fhh@aaricia ~ $ echo "\"ß\"" | iconv -f utf8 -t ascii//TRANSLIT "ss"
fhh@aaricia ~ $ echo "āáǎàēéěèīíǐìōóǒòūúǔùǖǘǚǜĀÁǍÀĒÉĚÈĪÍǏÌŌÓǑÒŪÚǓÙǕǗǙǛ" | iconv -f utf8 -t ascii//TRANSLIT aaaaeeeeiiiioooouuuuuuuuAAAAEEEEIIIIOOOOUUUUUUUU

et peut être utilisée sur des fichiers :

fhh@aaricia ~ $ cat myfile.txt Une chaine avec des é, des Ù, des À, des ç et des œ   et même des "ß"
fhh@aaricia ~ $ iconv -f utf8 -t ascii//TRANSLIT < myfile.txt > noaccents.txt
fhh@aaricia ~ $ cat noaccents.txt Une chaine avec des e, des U, des A, des c et des oe   et meme des "ss"
 
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